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MONOGRAPH 



ON 



THE AUATIDJI, 



OR 



DUCK TRIBE. 



BY 



j>> 



T. C. EYTON, ESQ. F.L.S. F.Z.S. 




LONDON 



LONGMAN, ORME, BROWN, GREEN, .v LONGMAN, PATERNOSTER-ROW 
AND EDDOWES, SHREWSBURY. 



MDCCCWW in. 






i 



PREFACE. 



In preparing the following work, the chief aim of the Author has been not the invention 
of new species, but the establishment of old ones, in which he flatters himself he has succeeded. 
Very few synonyms of the older authors on Ornithology not having been reconciled, the chief part 
of those that remain (with the exception of Forskall, of whose descriptions we cannot make any 
thing) may be placed to the score of varieties. The list of synonyms, he is perfectly aware, might 
have been increased to a much greater extent, but this would have much extended the work, and 
not, he conceives, have answered any good purpose. Many new species are also for the first 
time described : for the unlimited use of the specimens lately brought home by him from South 
Africa, and now exhibiting at Egyptian Hall, the author takes this opportunity of thanking Dr. 
Andrew Smith, who will shortly publish plates of the new species of that valuable collection in this 
and the other classes. His warmest thanks also are due to the gentlemen in charge of the National 
Collection, and to the Council and Curators of the Zoological Society, for the facilities afforded him 
in examining their respective collections. To the Earl of Derby, Charles Darwin, Esq. William 
Yarrell, Esq. and also to the author of that beautiful work the " Birds of Europe," he is much 
indebted for access to their notes and specimens. In the course of the work anatomical cha- 
racters have for the first time been used for families, sub-families, and genera, where the author 
considered he had sufficient grounds to establish them ; but as the number of specimens of foreign 
anatkke he has been enabled to obtain in a fit state for dissection has necessarily been very limited, 
he earnestly requests the assistance of those gentlemen who have it in their power towards this 
important branch, in forwarding to him foreign specimens for dissection, recent or preserved in 
spirits or brine, which he shall always think well worth carriage from any distance. 

Since the greater part of this work was printed we have received Mr. Swainson's volume of 
Dr. Lardner's Cyclopaedia, entitled "Animals in Menageries." There is little new in it as regards 
the class we at present are endeavouring to illustrate, the greater part of the letter-press being 
copied from Latham. The following changes in nomenclature, however, occur, as regards which 
we shall leave our readers to judge for themselves, merely stating that Ave cannot agree with 
Mr. Swainson in them: viz. the specific name of the only known species of Coreopsis is changed 
from Nova Holland™ to Australia; the semipalmated goose ( Anas semipalmata, Lath. Choris- 
topus semipalmata nobis) is placed in Dendrocygna, Sw. being the same genus in which Anas 






PREFACE. 

arcuata, Horsf. has been before placed by Mr. Swainson, and on which species he instituted the 

genus; the musk duck ( Carina moschata, Flein.) is placed in the same genus with the common 
sheldrake (Tadorna) ; the blue-winged teal ( Anas discors, Linn. Cyanopterus discors nobis), the 
Baikal teal (Anas fonnosa, Linn. Querquedula formosa nobis), and the Java teal (Anas Java- 
nensis, Lath. Querquedula Javanensis nobis), are all placed in Genus Boschas, Sir. together 
with the common wild duck. The specific name also of Javanensis is altered to Javanica. 

We have also, since the printing of our generic characters, seen an article in the " Penny 
Cyclopaedia" (Fuliffulince) relating to a portion of the Anatidce, in which we are informed that the 
generic appellation of Chauliodus has been pre-occupied : as we find on reference this to have been 
the case, we venture to propose that of Ktinorhynchus instead, alluding to the comb-like appearance 
of the lamella? on each side of the bill. 

In the Catalogue of European and American Birds, just published by the Prince of Musignano, 
the generic name Ckauliodes is altered to Chanlelasmus, Gray, which had priority to our name for 
the same genus, having been published first; and Fuliyula Americana, Bonap. is altered to 
Aythya Erythrocephala, Bonap. which genus we do not think a good one ; its true name, there- 
fore, will be Fuligula Erytltrocephala. 

Brehm's work " Hanbuck der Naturgeschite aller vogel Deutschlands" would have been 
scarcely worthy of notice, had it not been that some new r genera had been instituted in it, and also 
the synonyms of Boie, wdiich are valuable, as they forestall many of those given by authors in this 
country. Looking at the work, however, altogether, it is worse than those of the older authors as 
regards the creation of false species, five or six species in many instances being made of one. 






C ONTENTS, 



Preface. 


PAGE 


Introductory Chapter 


.. 1 


Characters of Family Anatidae 




Sub -family Plectropterinae 


.. 7 


Genus Choristopus 


8 


Plecrropterus 


.. 10 


Sub-family Anserinae 




Genus Cereopsis 


12 


Chloephaga .... 


.. 13 


Bemicla 


14 


Cheniscus 


.. 15 


Anser 




Cygnus .... .... 


.. 18 


Sarkidiornis 




Chenalopex 


. . 22 


Sub-family Anatinae 




Genus Tadorna 


25 


Casarka 


27 


Dendrocygna 


28 


Leptotarsis 


29 


Dafila 


30 


Paecillonitta 


32 


Mareca .... .... 


33 


Aia .... 


35 


Querquedula .... 


37 


Cyanopterus .... 


38 


Phvnchaspis .... 


. . 40 


Malacorhynchus 


42 


Chauliodes chaulelasmus .... 


. . 43 


Anas .... .... 


45 


Carina . . .... 


47 


Sub-family Fuligulinae 


19 


Genus Micropterus .... 


50 


Melanitta .... 


52 


Somateria .... 


54 


Pohsticta .... .... 


55 


Kamptorhynchus .... 


57 


Callichen 


59 


Fuligula ....... ...... 


61 


Nyroca . . . 


63 


II irelda 




Clangula 




Subfamily Erismaturinae ...... .... 




Genus Thalassornis .... 




Uiziura . , , . .... 


71 


Erismatura .... 








CONTENTS. 



Characters of Sub-family Merginae .... .. 7", 

Genus Mergus 76 

S\ m ipsis speciorum .... . . 78 

Characters of Choristopus semipalmatus .... .... .... 78 

Pleetropterus Gambensis . . 79 

Cereopsis Novae Ilollandiae 80 

Chloephaga Sandvicensis .... .. 81 

Magellanica? 82 

Bernicla antarctica .... . . 84 

ruficollis .... .... 85 

leucopsis .... .... .... . . 86 

jubata 87 

Cheniscus Madagascariensis ...... . . SN 

Coromandelianus 89 

Anser indicus ...... . . 90 

erythropus .... .... 90 



segetum .... .... . . 91 

hyperboreas .... .... .... 92 

melanopterus .... .... .... . . 93 

ferus .... .... .... 93 

Guineensis .... .... .... . . 94 

Ilutchinsii .... .... 95 

Canadensis .... .... .... . . 95 

Cygnus olor .... .... .... 96 

immutabilis .... .... .... . . 96 

atratus .... .... .... 97 

nigricollis .... .. 98 

Bewickii 98 

Americanus . . 99 

buccinator 100 

anatoides .. .. 101 

ferus .... .... 101 

Sarkidiornis regius 102 

Atiicanus .. 103 

Chenalopex .Egyptiaca .... 103 

cana .... .... .. 104 

Tadorna bellonii 105 

radjah .. 106 

Casarka rutila 1 06 

tadanoidea .. 107 

castanea Ids 

Dendrocygna arcuata .. 108 

autumnalis 1 09 

viduata . . 110 

arborea 110 

Leptotarsis Eytoni . . Ill 

Dafila urophasianus 112 

pyrogaster .. 113 

caudacuta 113 

marmorata . . 115 

Paecillonitta erythroihyncha 115 

Bahamensis . . 116 



CONTENTS. 



Characters of Mareca Americana 

Chiloensis 

fistularis 

castanea 



Aia galericulata 

sponsa 

Querquedula Javanensis 

falcaria 

crythrorhyncha 

Carolinensis 

fonnosa 

Manillensis 

glocitans 

crecca 

creccoides 

Capensis . . , . 

Hottentota .... 

Cyanopterus circia .... 

fretensis .... 

discors ..... 

Bafflesii 

Rhynchaspis rhynchotis .... 

maculatus .... 

clypeata . . . 

Capensis .... 

Malacorhynehus membrinacea 
Ktinorhynchus (Chaulelasmus) strepera 
Anas paecilorhyncha .... 

specularis .... . . . 

superciliosa .... 

obscura .... 

boschas .... 

flavirostris 

sparsa .... 

Carina moschata .... 

Micropterus patachonicus 

brachypterus 

Melanitta Americana .... 

nigra . 

perspicillata 

fusca .... 

Somateria spectabilis 

St. Cuthberti 

Polysticta Stelk-rii .... 

Kamptorhynchus Labradorus 
Callichen caryophylaceum 

rufinum .... 

Fuligula valisneria .... 

ferina 

Americana 

niarilla , , , , 



.... 

tt*. 
» . . .... 

• • • . 



.... 
.... 



116 

117 

118 

119 

119 

120 

121 

126 

127 

121 

121 

125 

122 

123 

128 

128 

129 

130 

131 

131 

132 

133 

134 

134 

135 

136 

137 

138 

138 

139 

140 

140 

141 

142 

142 

143 

144 

144 

145 

146 

147 

148 

149 

150 

151 

152 

152 

153 

154 

165 

156 



CONTEXTS. 



Characters of Fuligula 



aflinis 

- rufitorques 

■ cristata 






Nyroca Australia 

leucopthalmua 

brunnea 

Ilarelda glacialis 
Clangula histrionics 

albeola 

Barrovii 

vulgaris 

Americana 

leuconotus 

Biziura lobata 
Erismatura maccoa 

ferruginea 

leucocephala 

rubida 

Australia 

Dominica 



Mergus merganser 

serrator 

Brazilianus 

cucullatus 

albellus 



Appendix, No. 1. 
Appendix, No. 2. 

Supplement. 



157 
158 

159 
160 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
168 
169 
170 
170 
171 
172 
172 
173 
175 
176 
177 
178 






LIST ()F PLATES 



DIRECTION'S TO THE BINDER. 

1. Trachea of Cleophaga Magellanica, Tadoma bcllonii. Carina moschata, Melanitta fusca "} 

f to be placed 

2. Trachea of Aia sponsa, Querquedula formosa, Cyanopterus circia, Micropterus brachyptera, t ] ie f ore title pa"e 

Bernicla antarctica j 

3. Posterior margins of the sterna of Alca torda, Phalacrocorax cristatus, Podiceps crietatus, 

Clangula vulgaris. Fuligula cristata, Mergus albellus, Rhynchaspis clvpeata. Carina mos- 
chata, Tadorna bellonii, Anser ferus, Cygnus olor to face p. 5. 

4. (Esophagus, proventrieulus. stomach, and caeca of Anser segetum p. 11. 

5. Skeleton of Anser cygnoides p. 16. 

6. Skeleton and trachea of Cygnus ferus p. 18. 

7. Chenalopex .-Egyptiaca p. 22. 

8. (Esophagus, proventrieulus, stomach, and caeca of Querquedula crecca ; caeca of Tadoina bellonii p. 24. 

9. Skeleton of Tadorna bellonii p. 25. 

1'J. and trachea of Querquedula crecca p. 37. 

1 1. Anas boschas p. 4.5. 

12. (Esophagus, proventrieulus, stomach, and caeca of Melanitta nigra ; caeca of Fuligula ferina. and 

Clangula vulgaris p. 49. 

13. Skeleton and trachea of Xyroca leucopthalmus p. 63. 

14. Ilarelda glacialis p. 65. 

1 '•. Skeleton of Clangula bistrioniea ; trachea of Clangula vulgaris p. 67. 

I'). (Esophagus, proventrieulus, stomach, and caeca of Mergus senator p. 75. 

17. Skeleton and trachea of Mergus serrator p. 76. 

18. Trachea and muscles of voice in Cygnus Bewickii p. 98. 

1 r K Casarka castanea p. 108. 

21 1. Dafila urophasianus, male p. 1 12. 

21. Mareca Cbiloensis, male p. 117. 

22. Mareca castanea, male p. 1 19. 

23. Nyroca brunnea, male and female p. 161. 

24. Oxyura (Erismatura, Maccoa; Oxyura Dominica, fern. p. 16ft 






C'OHKIG END A. 



p. 16. I. (i. 






24. 


5. 


28. 


2. 


29. 


2. 


— 


3. 


30. 


6. 


33. 


5. 


37. 


19. 


43. 


). 


43. 


3. 


45. 


18. 


49. 


9. 


— 


10. 


54. 


13. 


61. 


6. 


— 


20. 


65. 


3. 


80. 


1. 


82. 


3. 



for 


instructis 


read 


instructs, 


.... 


inferiorum 





inferiorem. 




contractarn 


.... 


contracta. 


... 


calcaria 


.... 


calcari. 




una 


.... 


uno. 


... 


processibusque 


.... 


processibus. 




armatae 




armati. 


... 


complanata 




complaaatura, 





instructo 


.... 


instructum. 




onga 


.... 


lunga. 


.. . 


instructis 


.... 


iostructa. 


... 


]| 


.... 


2i 




Chauliodes 




Cbuultlasmus. 


dele 


vix elongate. 






fir 


laterater 


.... 


luteralliter. 


• • ■ 


boscbas 


.... 


pscilorhyncha 


... 


extrernus 


.... 


extremas. 


... 


rami 




ramorum. 


• f . 


a mollissima 


.. . . 


gpectabilis. 


• • • 


, instructis 


.... 


instructs. 




marilla 


.... 


cristata. 


afte 


r parte 


add 


anteriore. 


fir 


Nova 


read 


Novce. 


afte 


r cnllo dele que, and 


add que after 


pcJibus. 






INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

Before entering upon a description of the group we propose to illustrate, it may not be 
amiss to make a few observations on some of the divisions at present in use among Ornithologists, 
more particularly Genera and Species, for we regard all other divisions, if indeed Genera are not 
so, as certainly to a great extent arbitrary, and constituted merely for the convenience of the student 
in Zoology, that he may at once turn to the required species or group he may wish to find, instead of, 
as would be the case if he consulted the works of Buffon, having to turn over volumes before he 
would be able to find the wished-for place. When we use the term arbitrary, as applied to divisions 
of the animal kingdom, let them be called either classes, families, sub-families, or by any other 
name, we mean, that in forming them there are generally rejected as many points of connection 
between contiguous groups, and often stronger ones, than those made use of for their division. 
Divisions and arrangements of some sort are, however, absolutely necessary for the Zoologist, under 
each of which should be stated the points of connection it bears to others. Much has been said and 
written on analogy and affinity, and the connection by one or the other of them between the groups 
and species of the animal kingdom. We have not, however, been able to distinguish between them 
in any other manner than that the former is generally applied when the groups or species between 
which a connexion is supposed to exist are far removed from each other, and the latter when nearly 
related, we shall use the terms indiscriminately, as convenient. 

A definition of species again presents to the Zoologist in particular another difficulty. 

The generally received opinion is that of John Hunter, viz. that hybrids between true species 
will not be productive ; and this, we are inclined to believe, is partially correct, but not entirely so, 
ae -ome birds, in a state of domestication, have bred together, and their offspring been productive, 
although differing most materially in external form. 

It may be advanced, however, and with truth, that those animals upon which this experiment 
has been tried have invariably been brought from countries far apart, and that consequently in a 
wild state the experiment has never been tried ; no fact, that we are aware of, can be brought 
forward towards an answer to this objection. Should it prove true, that animals inhabiting 
different countries, and with slightly different forms and colouring, are of the same species, and we 
confer there is good reason for supposing that this may be the case, it can only be accounted for 
in this mode, namely, that at the universal distribution of animals after the Deluge, those of the same 

Species, and derived from the same parents, going to different localities, have in a succession ol ages 
been influenced by various local circumstances, as climate, the plentitude, the want, or nature of food, 
which causes have changed their form, colouring, and, in many instance's, their habits. 

We have DOthing whatever to urge against this theory, and we find much in favour of 
it, considering the different varieties of the human form anil habits, although we cannot lor a 
moment Suppose that they are derived from other thin the same common parents, and that the 

distinctions between the different races are caused otherwise than solelj by climate, yet do we make 

it 



I 






2 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

species of animals inhabiting the same countries, where man has undergone changes equal to any 
specific character we are able to give between his inferiors. As far, however, as our data at present go, 
the theory of Hunter, excepting those animals in a state of domestication, appears to be the 
trae one, and we shall here take the liberty of referring our readers to some short papers by us in the 
Zoological proceedings for 1837, and to Loudon's Magazine of Natural History, No. VII. New 
Series, and also to a Note appended to a paper by Mr. Blyth, in volume IX. page 511, of the same 
Magazine. 

That man is subjected to a change in complexion as well as in the formation of the skull, 
when acted upon by different climates, appears from the following quotation: — "In Cairo, and 
throughout the northern provinces, those (Mooslim Egyptians) who have not been much exposed to 
the sun have a yellowish but very clear complexion and soft skin, the rest are of a considerably 
darker and coarser complexion. The people of Middle Egypt are of a more tawny colour, and 
those of the more southern provinces are of a deep bronze or brown complexion, darkest towards 
Nubia, where the climate is hottest." Vide "An Account of the Manners and Customs of the 
Modern Egyptians, by W. Lane, Vol. I. Library of Entertaining Knowledge." 

From a paper read at the meeting of the British Association, held at Liverpool, by Dr. 
Warren (of Boston, U. S.), it appears that the crania of Indians found buried in mounds in 
North America, and on that account called the Mound Indians, differ in form from those of the 
Indians at present inhabiting the same country, and agree with those of the Peruvians now 
inhabiting South America. Are the present North American Indians the posterity of these Mound 
Indians '? What evidence is there that they are not 1 ? 

The geographical distribution of animals is a subject of much interest to the Zoologist as well 
as to the Geologist, and very closely connected with the distinction of species, more nearly so, indeed, 
than is generally supposed. 

Mr. Swainson divides the earth into five Zoological provinces, corresponding with the 
continents of Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and Australia; these arc well known divisions of the 
world, and as such are convenient, but we must consider that those countries occupied by the 
different races of mankind (except where emigration of late date has taken place) form much more 
natural Zoological provinces than those mentioned by Mr. Swainson. 

The division of the human species which appears to be most generally approved and adopted 
is that of Blumenbach : with the characters of these races we have at present nothing to do, but 
shall refer those of our readers who wish to investigate the matter further to the " Decades of 
Crania," by the author above quoted, to the "Regne animal," and Dr. Prichard's "Researches into 
the Physical History of Man." 

We shall, however, make use of that division of the Mongolian variety slightly hinted at by 
Cuvier, separating from it the Samoides or Lapland race, and it is a singular fact that the Zoology 
of the country, as well as the human inhabitants of it, form the connecting links between the Zoology 
and human inhabitants of the three great continents, Europe, Asia, and America. 

The following divisions or ranges are those which we think the most natural : — 
The Caucassian range occupies the whole of Europe, excepting only Lapland and Finland, 
that part of Asia to the west of the Caspian sea. and the rivers Obc and Ganges. 

The Mongolian range occupies that part of Asia not inhabited by the Caucassian races, except 
Malacca. 






INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 3 

The Esquimaux range contains those most northern parts of the three continents of Europe, 
Asia, and America, not occupied by the other races. 

The Ethiopian or Negro range is confined to Africa, together with the island of Madagascar. 
The American range occupies the whole of that vast continent, except the parts north of a 

line drawn frcm the northern side of Hudson's Bay to Cook's Inlet, which forms a part of the 
Esquimaux range. 

The Malay range contains Malacca, Australia, and the intermediate islands of the Pacific and 
Indian Oceans, extending as far northwards as the Phillipine Group, New Zealand, and New 
Guinea. 

The numerous islands not mentioned are considered as belonging to the ranges to which they 
are contiguous, 

The advantage of this arrangement of the globe is simply that the zoology of the country 
occupied by each range will, in a great measure, as far as we have been able to ascertain, be found 
to be peculiar, the central portions of each district being occupied by a race of animals as well as by 
a variety of man distinct from those of the other ranges, the borders of each district, or those points 
at which they approach one another, being as it were inhabited by a mixed zoology, many of the 
species and Genera of either of the contiguous ranges being found in it. 

There are, however, certain birds of great power of flight found distributed to a very large 
extent over the surface of the globe, the Kestril and Peregrine Falcon may be enumerated as 
examples. 

The object we have in view in this detail is an attempt, however imperfect, to shew that the 
same districts occupied by the various races of man are also occupied by various races of animals, 
each differing from the races of man and animals in the other ranges, and that it is exceedingly 
probable that as the races of man are merely varieties, one of the other those of animals may also 
be so. 

And why is it, we may ask, in any way improbable that, at the dispersion of man and animals 
after the flood, the same causes may not have influenced both ? We can observe even in the 
present state of science and observation some instances in which a parallel between animals and 
the human race, inhabiting the same countries, can be traced, and it may be expected that as 
science advances these parallels will increase : any one acquainted with this subject, upon 
seeing a box of African bird skins, will at once, without examining each species, say from whence 
they came, by their general appearance, and the darkness of their hues ; the negro race from the 
same countries is also dark. Mr. Swainson, in volume 66 of Lardner's Cyclopaedia., observes, that 
European Ornithology is characterised by the great number of Genera it contains in proportion to 
the number of species. There are also, perhaps, more sub-varieties of the Caucassian race than 
of any other, caused, probably, by the great variety of the climates. 

The birds and animals of the Esquimaux range are nearly all migratory ; the human 
inhabitants of the country are also seldom stationary for long together in the same spot, for the 
same reason, the want of food. 

Thus, in some instances at least, we see that man and animals are influenced by the sanu 
cause, and why. therefore, is it by any means improbable that many of the animals, inhabiting 
different countries, and allowed to be allied, are of the same species, but have, by local causes, 
through a succession of ages, become altered p 

Although we have said much, perhaps too much, on this subject, and, we fear, tired OUJ 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 






readers, let it be understood that the -whole is merely brought forward as a conjecture, to which, 
whatever data we have been able to collect being given, we leave our readers to decide with regard 
to the probability or the contrary of it. Should it, however, prove true that many now supposed 
species, inhabiting different countries, are the same, and merely varieties, it will not lessen in any 
degree, or make less interesting or important, the labours of the zoologist ; for, in an intellectual 
point of view, can anything be more interesting than to unravel what appears to be a mystery, and, 
in an useful one, to point out such animals as will breed together, and thereby open the way to 
improvement in our varieties of domesticated animals. 

In the internal arrangements of the group we intend to illustrate we shall deviate from the 
course followed by other authors, and propose one which, as far as we have been able to carry 
our investigations, appears to be in harmony with both the external and internal organization 
of each genus. We must here mention it as a subject of regret, that, although our utmost 
endeavours have been used, we have been totally, on account of their rarity in this country, unable 
to obtain either subjects for dissection, or even a sight of the skeletons, of many Genera. 

Many parts throughout the group appear to be in favour of Mons. Temminck's opinion, that 
there are no such divisions as Genera in nature, the transition from one extreme of form to another 
being so gradual that it is difficult to say where to draw the line of division. 

Upon a minute examination, however, as far at least as we are at present acquainted with the 
species, there is always found some break as it were between the forms constituting contiguous 
Genera or Subgenera, and some tangible distinction between them, although in many particulars 
they appear closely to approach. It is probable, however, that many new forms will yet be dis- 
covered ; therefore, in the present state of science, it is impossible to say whether this opinion of 
Mons. Temminck's will eventually prove true or not. Should it be correct, a serious difficulty 
will arise with regard to nomenclature, in designating the objects to be named by a specific 
appellation alone. If we do not admit Genera we cannot admit families, orders, or classes ; the 
transition will, therefore, we contend, be complete through all, before we can abolish the one or the 
other. 

We shall now add a few words on the characters we have employed. Measurements are 
always subject to a certain degree of variation ; we have, therefore, when the opportunity has 
offered, given a mean of two or three. The number of tail feathers is far too variable a character 
to be admitted into any ornithological work. We have now before us three specimens of Erismatura 
rubida, in which, although in this genus the tail is an important member, the numbering of each 
differs. We have, for the first time, as far as we are aware of, made use of anatomical characters 
for divisions, taken from the trachea and skeleton principally ; this has not been done without due 
consideration, and the examination of a great number of specimens. 

We have no doubt that some will find fault with us on account of the shortness of the 
descriptions at the head of each specific character, the use of these, at least what we have supposed 
it to be, is, that in looking over a large number of descriptions we may readily catch some mark 
whereby the object we wish to name may be distinguished, perhaps, in common with one or two 
others from its congeners, and thus that the time taken to read over a large number of long 
descriptions will be saved. 

The characters of the Genera, and the cuts of bills and feet, are invariably taken from the 
species w^e have named as the generic type, unless it is mentioned to the contrary. 



1 



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ORDER NAT AT ORES. 



FAM. ANATID.E. 



Ext. Char. Rostrum magnum epidermide molli potius quam cornuo veritabili tectum ; 
lateribus lamellis vel dentibus parvis armatis. Lingua magna camosa lateribus setis instructis. 
Ahe mediocres. Pedes fere vel omnino in equilibrio locati, digitis tribus anterioribus membrane- 
junctis. 

Anat. Char. Sternum et pelvis magna et lata. Gigeria magna camosa Cceca longa. 
Larynx inferior in maribus fere bulbosa. Trachea aliquando convoluta, seepius bulbosa. 
Hahitatio aquatica, 

Ext. Char. Bill large, covered with a soft epidermis rather than true horn, the sides 
armed with lamella? or small teeth. Tongue large fleshy, with the margins toothed. Wings mode- 
rate. Feet placed in or near the equilibrium. Toes, with the three anterior ones, joined by a 
membrane. Neck long. 

Anat. Char. Sternum and pelvis large and broad. Gizzard large and fleshy. Cceca 
long. Trachea sometimes convoluted, more often bulbous. The inferior Larynx in the male 
commonly bulbous. Inhabits the water. 

The intestinal anatomy of the family Anatidm is characterised by the very great length of 
the alimentary canal compared to that of the bird : in some instances it is as many as five times its 
length, or even more. The caecal appendages are also much elongated, being often equal to more 
than one-third the length of the body. The stomach is always large and muscular, forming a true 
gizzard. The oesophagus varies little in its diameter, but is generally slightly enlarged a little 
above the gizzard, again contracted, and then of nearly uniform diameter to the glottis. 

The skeleton may be known by the length of the neck, and the great number of vertebrae 
of which it is composed, the large size of the sternum, the great developement of its keel and the 
form of its posterior extremity, which is- always perforated by two foramina or indented by two 
fissures ; the great length as well as breadth of the pelvis ; the laterally flattened and anteriorly 
arched form of the rami of the os furcatum. The truncate form and great depth of the occipital 
portion of the cranium in a vertical direction, and by the fibula not being entirely anchylosed to the 
tibia. 

Affinities. Considerable resemblance to the Divers is shewn in the Merginm and Erisma- 
turinee in outward form, in the structure of the tail and the dense oily nature of the plumage. The 



ANATID^.J 6 

latter make an evident approach to the cormorants in particular ; nothing, however, is known of 
their anatomy. The Mergiiue in their anatomy shew an affinity to the guillemots and the genera 
allied to them, chiefly consisting in the great developement of the keel of the sternum, and in its 
posterior edge being armed with an ensiform process. The pelvis also is much narrower and more 
elongated than is the case among the rest of the Anatides. The elongated head to the tibia pos- 
sessed by all true divers is also slightly apparent in the genus Mergus. 

We are aware by some authors that the Flamingo has been admitted among the anatidce, 
chiefly on account of its slightly laminated bill and palmated feet, and some portions of its intestinal 
anatomy resembling this family : we cannot, however, follow this arrangement for the following 

reasons. 

Characters for the larger divisions of birds are taken from the external organs necessary to 
procure their food, especially those of progression. The divisions of each of these have been made, 
on the other hand, chiefly from the different modifications of the bill.* Let us, for instance, take 
the order grallatores : we have there divisions or families formed for feeding on fish, mollusca, 
earth worms, and small insects: there is one general character of the skeleton through all. Not so 
with the bill and organs of digestion, which are modified, the former to procure and the latter to 
assimilate the different kinds of food necessary for the subsistence of the bird. 

The same rule we shall find hold throughout all the different orders of birds, namely, that 
the skeleton and structure of the legs and feet will invariably furnish a sure guide to the Order ; 
while, on the other hand, the bill and organs of digestion supply characters for further subdivision. 
"What we have said above is by no means meant to imply that no modifications of the skele 
ton exist in the different divisions of each order, for such is not by any means the case ; some 
slight one always being to be found where there is a change of habit, — in other words, in the modes 
in which the various kinds of food are obtained. 

The application of what we have said to the case in question is self-evident, that the fla- 
mingoes, having the organs of progression and skeleton peculiar to grallatorial birds, consequently 
must be placed in the order Grallatores, and that the bill and organs of digestion are fitted, the one 
for procuring, and the other for assimilating its natural food, — minute animalculse obtained at the 
edges of waters by wading and not by swimming. The webbed feet also possessed by this bird 
peculiarly fit it for walking on the soft mud and sand, commonly found on shores ; their structure, 
however, is not that of any modification among the anatidse, but essentially that of a crane, which 
bird has them also slightly webbed. 

* Where such is not the case the orders and families are evidently unnatural. 



SYNOPSIS 
FAMILIARUM ET GENERUM. 



SUB FAM. I. PLECTROPTERIN.E. 

Est. Char. Rostrum magnum, ad apicem augustatum, et ungue magna instructs. Plumes 
inter oculos rostrumque carent. Tibia parte quarta denudatae. Pedes validi, digitis unguibus 
magnis instructis. 

An*at. Char. Trachea aliquando convoluta maribus sed non in sterno penetrans. Caca 
mediocria. 

Ext. Char. Bill large, narrowed at the apex, and armed with a large claw. The space 
between the eyes and bill devoid of feathers. Thighs denuded for a quarter of their length. Feet 
strong, armed with sharp claws. 

Anat. Char. Trachea sometimes convoluted in the males, but not penetrating the 
sternum. Caca moderate. 

Affinities. This curious group appears to lead directly to the grallatorial birds, but with 
the flamingo in particular it coincides to a great degree in the intestinal anatomy, while its skeleton, 
at least the fragments of it Ave have inspected, is that of a true goose, that of the flamingo approaching 
most intimately the Ardeida, which in our opinion (although in some particulars its intestinal 
anatomy appears to accord with the Anatidce) entirely precludes it from being admitted into the 
order. 



PLECTROPTERIN/R.] 



8 





-t- 



GENUS I. CHORISTOPTJS. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis longis, semi-membrinatis, unguibus magnis incurvatis instructs. 
Tarsi magni. Tibice multum denudatae. Rostrum longum acuminatum com ad oculos tcndcnte. 
Caput ossea tubercula" supra nares et ungue, magna. 

Anat. Ghar. Trachea longa convoluta. 



9 [PLECTROPTERlN.fi. 

Cho ristopus nobis. 
Anser. Linn. Auct. 
Type. Choristopus semipahnatus. 

Affinity. This genus certainly approaches most nearly of any among the Anafuhv to the 
order Grallatores. To the genus Plectropterus it is nearly allied in form. 




PLECTROPTER1N.E.] 



10 




GENUS II. PLECTROPTERUS. 
Ext. Char. Pedes membrinati digitis posterioribus longis, magnis, scd non lobatis, 

unguibus magnis et incuvvatis instructs. Rostrum latum ungue magna instructa. Nares ovales, 
in medio rostri positee. Alee una calcaria. armatje. 

Anat. Char. Ignoti. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes long, large and not lobed, armed with large and 
curved claws. Bill broad, furnished with a large nail. Nostrils oval, placed in the middle of the 
bill. Wings armed with one spur. 

Anat. Char. Unknown. 

Anas. Linn. 

Plectropterus. Steph. 

Type. Plectropterus gambersis. 

Affinity. We are ignorant that any anatomical character of the genus has been ascertained ; 
in default of which we have placed it next to the genus it appeared to approach in external 
character. 





• 





.' ' a a of Dittt 



11 [ANSERINjE. 



SUB FAM. H. ANSERINE. 



Ext. Char. Rostrum altius-quam latum. Pedes mediocres validi, digitis posterioribus 
non lobatis. 

Anat. Char. Sternum mediocre, postice fissuris magnis et apertis; carina non antice 
products, lata postice et non ad ultimam marginem sterni continuata. Pelvis mediocris. 
Foramina ischiadica magna et ovata. Os furcatorium validum arcuatum. Processus coracoides 
validus et brevis. Alee longte. Costcc latfe, processu longo instructag. Trachea fere complanata, 
sed aliquando bulbosa, et in sterno penetrans. Larynx inferior aliquando bulbosa. 

Ext. Char. Bill higher than broad. Feet moderate, strong, the posterior toes not lobed. 

Axat. Char. Sternum moderate, furnished with large and open fissures behind : keel not 
produced anteriorly, broad, not continued to the posterior margin. Pelvis of moderate size, with 
the ischiadic foramina large and ovate. Os furcatorium strong, arcuated. The coracoid process 
strong and short. Wings long. Ribs broad, furnished with a long process. Trachea commonly of 
ecpial size. The inferior larynx sometimes bulbous. 

Habit. The birds contained in this family feed equally on the land and water ; some 
species, however, scarcely ever approach it ; the whole live almost entirely on vegetables. They 
have a very wide geographical range, and are mostly migratory. 

Type. Anser. 

Affinities. The nearest affinity it appears to present to the following sub-family appears to 
be through the genus Chenalopex. On the other hand the genus Cereopsis appears to approach 
the Plectropterinee in its anatomy and habit. 



ANSERIN.E.] 



12 




GENUS I. CEREOPSIS. 

Ext. Char. Pedes simiiibus genere sequenti. Rostrum breve, obtusum ; culmine 
arcuato. Nares cera tectae, magnae, et rotundatae. 

Anat Char. Trachea magna, complanata. Larynx inferior anseribus similis. 

Ext. Char. Feet as in the preceding. Bill with a cere covering the nostrils ; the culmen 
arched. Nostrils large, rounded. 

Anat. Char. The Trachea large, uniform. Inferior Larynx like that of the geese. 

Cereopsis. Lath. 

Type. Cereopsis Novce flollandice. 

The only anatomical notes that I know of in existence, with regard to this curious bird, are 
those of Mr. Yarrell, in the Zoological Proceedings (1830, p. 25), which in giving our specific 
account of it, we cannot do better than extract. 

Affinities. Another rather anomalous genus, more closely connected, bowever, with the 
geese than the preceding. 




13 



[Anserin*. 




GENUS II. CHLOEPHAGA. 

Ext. Char. Pedes robusti. Digitis posterioribus mediocribus, unguibus incurvatis 
instructis. Membrana inter digitos anterius concavatis. Tarsi robusti longi. Rostrum robustum. 
culmine vix arcuatum, ungue magna instructs. Nares lineares in medio rostri positse. Lamella 
parvse antice obliterate. 

Axat. Char. Trachea bulbo uno latere osseo. 

Ext. Char. Feet robust. Posterior toes moderate, armed with a curved claw, with the 
Membranes between the toes scolloped out in front. Tarsi large and strong. Bill robust, with 
the culmen slightly arched, armed with a large nail. Nostrils linear, placed in the middle of the 
bill. Lamella small, obliterated anteriorly. 

Anat. Char. Trachea with one osseous bulb on the side. 

Ax as. Linn. 

Bernicla. Steph. 

Chloephaga nobis. 

Type. Chloephaga Magellanica. 

Affinities. The above genus Ave have formed on Bernicla Magellanica, which bird in 
outward form appears to make a link between the genera Bernicla and Cereopsis, and internally 
as far as regards the trachea, presents an affinity to the Anatincc. 




ANSERIN .!•'..] 



14 




GENUS III. BERNICLA. 

Ext. Char. Pedes parvi, digitis posterioribus non lobatis, unguibus magnis instniclis. 
Tarsi elongati. Rostrum parvum, capite brevius. Nares lincares, in medio rostri positne. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubula ecpiali. Larynx inferior ossea aliquando bulbosa. 

Ext. Char. Feet small, with the posterior toes not lobaled; the nails large. 7am 
elongate. Bill small, shorter than the head. Nostrils linear, placed in the middle of the bill. 

Anat. Char. Trachea with the tube of equal size. The inferior Larynx osseous but 
not bulbous. 

Bernicla. Steph. 

Anas. Linn. 

Type. Bernicla jubata. 

The proportions of the skeleton are as follows : — Depth of the keel to the length of the 
sternum, as 1 to 3|. Breadth of the pelvis to its length, as 1 to 2. Length of sternum to that 
of tibia, as 1 to If. Height of cranium to its length, as 1 to 2\. The keel is not continued to 
the posterior extremity of the sternum. 

Affinity. Nearly allied, both in anatomy and habit, to the preceding and following. 




15 



[aXSERIN.E. 




GENUS IV. CHENISCUS. 

Ext. Char. Rostrum parvum, ad basin elevatum, vakle altius-quam latum, et ungue 
magna instructs. Nares rotundatte, culmen versus positae. Pedes magni. Di;/iii longi et 
acutis unguibus armati. Tarsi breves. Cauda rotundata. 

Anat. Char. Ignoti. 

Ext. Char. Bill small, elevated at tbe base, much higher than broad, and armed with a 
large nail. Nostrils rounded, placed towards the culmen. Feet large. Toes long, and armed 
with sharp claws. Tarsi short. The tail rounded. 

Ax at. Char. Unknown. 

Axser. Linn. Lath. 

Berxicla. Stepk. 

Querqueula. Gray. 

Cheniscus . Brookes' MSS. 

Type. Cheniscus Coromandeliana. 

Affinity. In the structure of the feet this genus bears considerable resemblance to the 
species of the genus A user, adapted for swimming, though of extremely diminutive size. Tbe bill, 
od the contrary, is that of Bemicla. 




ANSERINJE.] 



16 




GENUS V. ANSEH. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus non lobatis, unguibus magnis arcuatis. 7am 
robusti et magni. Tibia parte tertia denudatse. Rostrum magnum, validum, ungue magna 
instructum, lateribus plerumque hiantibus. Nares ovales in medio rostri posits. Lingua 
obtusa non ad apicem appendiculata, sed subtus cornea, in latera una ordine setarum brevium, et 
supra has setas multis rigidis spinis instructis ad apicem tendentibus. 

An at. Char. Trachea tubula complanata, sed versus larynginem inferiorum contractam. 
Larynx 'inferior ossea, sed non tuberculosa. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes not lobated, armed with large claws. Tarsi 
robust and large. Tibia for a third part denuded. Bill large, strong, furnished with a large nail, 
the sides gaping. Nostrils oval, placed in the middle of the bill. Tongue obtuse, without an 
appendage, but below corneous, the sides armed with one rank of bristles, above and on the sides 
is a row of many stiff bristles extending to the tip. 

Anat. Char. Trachea with the tube of equal size, but contracted towards the inferior 
larynx. The inferior Larynx long and not tuberculous. 

Anser. Auct. 

Anas. Linn. 

Type. Anser ferus. 

The proportions of the skeleton are as follows: — Depth of the keel to the length of the 
sternum, as 1 to 4. Breadth of the pelvis to its length, as 1 to 11. Length of sternum to that 
of tibiae, as 1 to 1|. Height of cranium to its length, as 1 to 3. 



,: 





- 



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Va , . 






17 



ANSERIX.E.] 



Affinities. Some of the species of this genus approach near the swans, as Anser Canadiens, 
while others present an affinity to the Bernicles, as Anser inrficn. 




J 



ANSERIN/E.} 



18 








GENUS VT. CYGNUS. 



Ext. Char. Pedes magni, digitis posterioribus parvis, gibbosis. mediis longissimis. Ros- 
trum magnum, lateribus parallelibus. Nares subovales, in medio rostri posits. Cervia longa. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubula equali, aliquando in sterno penetrante. Larynx inferutt { 

ossea. Sternum carina antice incurvata. 

Ext. Char. Feet large, Avitb tbe posterior toes small, gibbous, the middle ones longest. 
Bill large, tbe sides parallel. Nostrils suboval, placed in tbe middle of* tbe bill. Neck long. 

ANAT. Char. Trachea with the tube of equal size, sometimes penetrating the sternum. 
Inferior Larynx osseous. Sternum with the keel anteriorly curved. 

Cygnus. Ray. Briss. 

Anas. Linn. Lath. 

Type. Cygnus ferns. 







■ ■ 



1 



J 



19 



[ \NSERIX.E. 



The proportions of the skeleton are as follow : — Depth of the keel to the length of the 
sternum, as 1 to 4. Breadth of pelvis to its length, as 1 to 2j. Length of sternum to that of tibia, 
as 1 to 2. Depth of cranium to its length, as 1 to 3. 

Affinities. Although we have placed the swans with the geese, we are not by any means 
certain that it is their proper place. 




AN.SER1N.E.] 



20 





GENUS VII. SAKKIDIORNIS. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus mediocribus, in t arsis alte locatis. Tarsi medi- 
ocres. Bostrum in maribus caruncula magna compressa culmine. Nares rotundatae magna;. 
Alee una calcaria armata?, et remigibus apices versus incurvatis. Cauda ad apicem truncata. 

Anat. Char. Ignoti. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes moderate, placed high on the tarsi. Tarsi 
moderate. Bill in the males with a large compressed caruncle on the top. Wings each armed 
with a spur, and with the (mills incurved towards the points. Tail squared at the end. 

Anat. Char. Unknown. 

Carina. Steph. 

Anser. Linn. 

Sarkidiornis nobis. 

Plectropterus. Steph. 

Type. Sarkidiornis melanatus. 



21 



[anserine. 



Various have been the genera in which the bird before us has been placed (Anser melanotus, 
Linn. J, with none of which does it agree. We have therefore proposed a new one for it. 

Affinities. We have placed it, as far as we have been able (no anatomical character being 
known), in what appears to us to be its proper place, namely between the genera Chenalopex 
and Anser. It agrees with the former, in having a spur on the wing. 










ANSERIN.E.] 



22 




GENUS VIII. CHENALOPEX. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus gibbosis, et unguibus robustis. Tarsi longi. 

Rostrum valitlum ad basum tuberculatum. Lamella non ad marginem rostri continuata?. Anns 
subrotundatae in medio rostri positae. Ala calcaria una armata'. < 'main ad apicem truncata. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubula equali. Larynx inferior bulbo laterali. 

Ext. Char. Feet with tbe posterior toes gibbous, and the claws strong. Tarsi long. Bill 
strong, at the base tuberculated. Lamella not continued to the margin. Nostrils rather rounded, 
placed in the middle of the bill. Wings armed with one spur. Tail squared at the end. 

Axat. Char. Trachea with the tube of equal size. Inferior larynx with a lateral bulb. 

Axser. Alict. 

Chexalopex. Steph. Aatiq. 

Type. Chenalopex Eggptiaca. 



— 







TIAtA* THA.1HKA. 



23 



[anserine. 



Affinity. This genus, in possessing a bulb on the trachea, presents an affinity to the 
ducks ; while its form and habit evidently point out its connection with the geese. 







ANATIN'.E.} 24 



SUB FAM. III. ANATINiB. 

Ext. Char, nostrum latitudine altitudini sequante. Pedes medioeres, digiti posteriores 

nunquam lobati, sed aliquando gibbosi. 

Anat. Char. Sternum longum, angustatum, postice latissimum. carina antice product^ 
et lata postice, acl ultimam marginem sterni continuata. Pelvis lata, brevis. Osfurcatum mediocre 
lateribus compressis. Processus coracoides longus, sed non antice productus. Coster processibu 
posterioribus compressis. Trachea tubula in omni parte fere equali. Larynx inferior bulbosa 
fereque omnino ossea in maribus. 

Ext. Char. Bill in breadth and height equal. Feet moderate, posterior toes I 
lobate !, but sometimes gibbous. 

Anat. Char. Sternum long, narrowed, behind broadest, with heel anteriorly produced, 
broad posteriorly, continued to the margin of the sternum. Pelvis broad, short. Os furcation 
moderate, compressed on the sides. Coracoid process long, and not anteriorly produced. Ribs 
and the posterior processes compressed. Trachea generally of equal size throughout. Inferior 
Larynx bulbous, and altogether osseous in the males. 

Type. Anas. 

Habit. Aquatic, frequenting fresh water in preference to the sea, feeding generally along 
the edges of lakes and rivers, on small molluscous animals, in preference to diving for them ; soft 
aquatic plants and weeds also constitute a considerable portion of their food : they often also feed 
on land. The species, having great power of flight, have a very wide geographical range. 

Affinities. To the Fuligulinee this sub-family is connected by the musk duck (Carina 
Moschata), which, besides having a largely developed and slightly lobated hind toe, has the bulb 
situated at the inferior larynx compressed, and not altogether osseous, as is the ease in the rest of 
the family. The genus Micropterus has, on the other hand, a trachea very nearly resembling that 
of the true land duck. We prefer taking the genus Anas, as at present restricted, for the type of 
this sub-family, instead of Rhynchaspis, as proposed by Mr. Swainson, regarding thai form and the 
nearly allied one of Malacorhynchus, rather as ultra than typical, and not so well suited to what 
may be termed the true habit of the sub-family as that we have chosen. 








• 






; 



/ /. , . .... Vl -. , ■,:■■ ■■■ , ... Fan 

., , , / 3CacaofIador/uuJ3tllaMi Ma& 



25 



[anatinjs. 




GENUS I. TADORNA. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus non lobatis, unguibus robustis armatis. Tarsi 
robusti et longi. Rostrum mediocre validum recurvatum. Lamella vix elongatae. Nares ovales, 
magnae, in dimidio basali rostri positae. Cauda rotundata. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubula eequali, sed ad larynginem inferiorem paululum expandente 
et tunc contracta. Larynx inferior duabus osseis bulbis utrinque, et antice extendentibus. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes not lobated, armed with thick claws. Tarsi 
thick and long. Bill moderate strong. Lamella scarcely elongated. Nostrils oval, large, placed 

in the basal half of the bill. Tail rounded. 

Anat. Char. Trachea with the tube of equal size, but a little expanded and again con- 
tracted towards the inferior larynx. The inferior Larynx with two osseous bulbs extending on 
each side and before. 

Anas. Linn. Gmel. Lath. 

Tadorna. Leach. Flem. Steph. 

Typk. Tii dm- mi Bellonii. 

The depth of the keel to the length of the sternum is as 1 to 4. The breadth of the pelvis 
to its length as 1 to lg. The length of the sternum to that of the tibia as 1 to 2. The breadth 
of the cranium to its length as 1 to 2j ! . 



ANATINjE.] 



26 



Affinities. The common Sheldrake approaches near in external character to the following 
genus. Nothing heing known of the anatomy of that genus, we cannot trace the affinity farther. — 
To the A » serin a it also approaches in its osteology and general hahir, particularly to the genus 
Chenalopex. 




27 



[anatinzb. 




GENUS II. CASARKA. 

Ext. Char. Rostrum mediocre lateribus parallelibus non recurvatum. Nares subovales, 
culminem versus positae. Lamella elongatee. Pedes robusti, digiti unguibus magnis armati. 

Anat. Char. Ignoti. 

Ext. Char. Bill moderate with tbe sides parallel, not recurved. Nostrils suboval. 
placed near tbe culmen. Lamellce elongated. Feet robust, the toes armed witb large claws. 

Anat. Char. Unknown. 

Anas. Linn. Lath. 

Tadorna. Selby. 

Casarka. Bonap. 

Type. Casarka rutila. 

Affinity. This genus may be distinguished from Tadorna, to which it is closely allied, by 
the straighter and much shorter bill. 




ANATIME.] 



28 





GENUS III. DENDROCYGNA. 

Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus longis, non lobatis unguibus longis armata?. 
Tarsi robusti et longi. Rostrum mediocre validum altius-quam latum. Nares ovales magna; 
prope culmen in medio rostri positse. Lamella abbreviate. Cauda flexilis rotundata. Alts 
remigibus primariis magna incisum in medio parte. 

Anat. Char. Ignoti. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes long, not lobated, and with long claws. Tarsi 
robust and long. Bill moderate strong, higher than broad. Nostrils placed near the culmen in 
the middle of the bill. Lamella: abbreviated. Tail flexible, rounded. Primaries with a deep 
notch in the middle. 

Anat. Char. Unknown. 

Anas. Linn. 

Dendrocygna. Swainson. 

Type. Dendrocygna arcuata. 

This genus will be easily recognized by the great length of the tarsi, and at the same time 
rounded form of the tail. Anas arcuata, Hors. or Anas viduaia, Linn, may be considered as 
typical species. 

Affinities. The genus appears to form a beautiful connecting link between the true fresh- 
water ducks and the foregoing genus. 




29 



[ANATIN.E. 




GENUS IV. LEPTOTARSIS. 



Ext. Char. Rostrum mediocre ad basin, altius-quam latum, culmine complanata et 
ungue magno instructo. Nares parvae, culmen versus locatee. Tarsi longi et graciles. Digiti 
unguibus paululum incurvatis acutisque armati. 

Anat. Char. Ignoti. 

Ext. Char. Bill moderate at the base, higher than broad, the culmen much flattened 
and with a large nail. Nostrils small, placed near the culmen. Tarsi long and slender. Toes 
armed with curved and sharp claws. 

Anat. Char. Unknown. 

Leptotarsis. Gould. 

The only species of this genus we have seen is in the collection of the Zoological Society, 
and was received from New South Wales. 

Affinity. The structure of the bill appears to ally this genus to that of Dendrocygna ; 
while, on the other hand, that of the tail, which, though not elongated, is acuminate, to the genus 
IDafila. 







ANATINjE.] 



30 




GENUS V. DAFILA. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus, non lobatis, mediis longissimis. Tibia paululum 
denudatse. Rostrum longius capite lateribus parallelibus. Nares magnse ovalcs, prope eulmen ad 
basin positee. Lamella ad marginem rostri continuatoe. Lingua subobtusa ad apicem appendiculata 
lateribus una online setarum brevium, supra has setas in medio octo spinas rigidis instructs. Cauda 
longa. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubula aequali sed larynginem inferiorem versus paululum con- 
tracta. Larynx inferior bulbo mediocre uno latere tendente. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toe not lobed, the middle one longest. Thighs a little 
denuded. Bill longer than the head, the sides parallel. Nostrils large oval, placed near the 
eulmen at the base. Lamella continued to the edge of the bill. Tongve rather obtuse, at the point 
with an appendage, the sides furnished with one row of bristles, and above the bristles in the 
middle with eight stiff spines. 

Anat. Char. Trachea with the tube equal, but towards the inferior larynx a little con- 
tracted. The inferior Larynx with a middle-sized bulb on one side. 

Anas. Linn. 

Dafila. Leach. Steph. 

Type. Dafila acuta. 



31 [ANATINiE. 

The proportions of the skeleton are: the depth of the keel to the length of the sternum as 1 
to 4. Breadth of pelvis to its length as 1 to If. Length of sternum to that of the tibia as 1 to 
1|. Height of cranium to its length as 1 to 3. 

Affinity. The tail in this genus is much elongated, presenting in that particular an affinity 
to the genus Mareca, -which has it slightly so. 




ANATIN.E.] 



32 




GENUS VI. P.ECTLONITTA. 

Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus brevibus et parvis, non lobatis. Rostrum mediocre, 
altitudine latitudine aequante. Nares prope basi positae, rotundatae. Cauda mediocris, rotundata. 

Anat. Char. Jgnoti. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes short and small, not lobed. Bill moderate, the 
height equal to the breadth. Nostrils placed near the base, rounded. Tail moderate, rounded. 

Anat char. Unknown. 

Anas. Linn. 

Mareca. Steph. 

P.eciloxitta nobis 

Type. Pacilonitta BaJiamensis. 

We have formed this genus for the reception of Anas Bahamensis and its near ally Anas 
Erythror/iyncka. 

Affinity. In default of anatomical character, and from general structure, tins genus appears 
to be nearly allied to Dafila. 




33 



[axatinje. 




GENUS VII. MARECA. 



Ext. Char. Pedes cligitis posterioribus non lobatis mediis longissimis. Tibia paululum 
denudatae. Rostrum brevius capite, prope basin latissiraum. Nares parvae, ovales. Lamella ad 
marginem rostri eontinuata?. Lingua subobtusa, ad apicem appendiculata latera una ordine 
setarum brevium et in medio duplice ordine instructis. 

Anat. Char. Trachea in maribus tubula infra glottidem expandente, tunc contractu, rursus 
expandente usque ad larynginem. Larynx inferior bulbo magno osseo latere et paululum anterius 
tendente. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes not lobed, the middle one longest. The Thighs 
a little denuded. Bill shorter than the head, near the base broadest. Nostrils small, oval. 
Lamella continued to the margin of the bill. Tongue rather obtuse, with an appendage at the tip. 

Anat. Char. Trachea with the tube expanding below the glottis, then contracted, again 
expanded as fir as the inferior larynx. Inferior Larynx with a large osseous bulb extended on the 
side and a little before. 

Anas. Linn. 

Mareca. Steph. 

Type. Mareca fistula ris. 

v 



ANATIX.E.J 



34 



The proportions of the skeleton are : — Height of the keel to the length of the sternum 
as 1 to 31. Breadth of the pelvis to its length as 1 to I|. Length of femur to that of the tibia 
as 1 to 1^. Height of cranium to its length as 1 to 2\. 

Affinity. To the next genus this presents an approach in the formation of the tail, which 
in some of the species is pointed and slightly elongated. To the following the form of the hill 
presents an affinity. 




35 



[ AXATIX.L. 




GENUS VIII. AIA. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus non lobatis, means lougissimis. Tibia plumatae. 
Rostrum brevius capite, baso ad apicem angustatum. Lamella abbreviatae. Nares subovales, parvae. 
('mala mediocris. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubula equali. Larynx inferior bulbosa, ossea, similis pre- 
cedent!. 

Ext. Char. Feet Avith tbe posterior toes not lobated, the middle ones longest. Thighs 
feathered. Bill shorter than the head, narrowed from the base to the point. Lamella abbreviated 
Nostrils suboval, small. Tail moderate. 

Axat. Char. Trachea with the tube equal. The inferior larynx bulbous, osseous like 
the preceding genus. 

Anas. Linn. 

Aia. Bote. 

QtJERQUEDULA. Briss. Steji/i 

DENDRONE88A. Swain. 

Type. Aia sponsa. 

lU habit of sitting and making its nest in trees is curious. 



ANATINiE.] 



36 



Affinity. Certainly more nearly allied to Qucrquedula and Mareca than any other genus of 
this sub-family, 





' 



■rnltiei 



1. 1, .->;, 



37 



[anatin e. 




GENUS IX. QUERQUEDULA. 

Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus non lobatis. Rostrum lateribus parallelibus. 
Lamella paululum elongatte. Nares rotundatae mediocres. Cauda brevis. Lingua subobtusa, ad 
apicem appendiculata, una online setarum brevium, ad apicem alicpiando pene obliterate, supra hae 
seta?, in medio,, lateraliter, septem spinis instructs. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubula infra glottidem expandente, tunc contractu, rursus expandente, 
et contractu. Larynx inferior bulbo parvo osseo latere et antice extendente. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes moderate, and not lobated. Bill with the sides 
equal. Lamellce slightly elongated. Nostrils rounded, moderate. Tail short. Tongue rather 
obtuse, with an appendage at the tip, the sides armed with one rank of short bristles towards the 
apex very short ; above these bristles, in the middle, on each side, armed with seven spines. 

Ax at. Char. Trachea with the tube below the glottis expanding, then contracted, again 
expanding, and again contracted above the inferior larynx. The inferior Larynx with a small 
osseous bulb extending on one side and before. 

Anas. Linn. 

Qlerqledula. Ray, Briss. 

Type. Querquedula crecca. 

Tbc proportions of the skeleton are:— Breadth of the keel to the length of the sternum as 
1 to -11. Breadth of the pelvis to its length as 1 to 1|. Length of femur to that of the tibia as 
L§. Height of cranium to its length as 1 to 3. 

Affinity. More closely allied to the genera Mareca and Aia than any other in the sub- 
ly. 




ANATIN^.] 



38 




GENUS X. CYANOPTERUS, 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus mediocribus, et non lobatis. Rostrum latins ad 
apicem quam ad basin. Lamella paululum elongatae. Narcs rotundata 1 , magna?. Cauda vix 
elongata. Ala ptilis caeruleis. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubulu infra glotidem expandente, tunc contractu, rursusque 
expandente, et contractu supra larynginem inferiorcm. Larynx inferior bulbo magno osseo 
lateribus et antice tendente. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes moderate, and not lobated. Bill broader at the 
tip than at the base. Lamcllce a little elongated. Nostrils rounded, large. Tail a little elongated. 

Anat. Char. Trachea with the tube below the glottis expanding, then contracted, and 
again expanding, and contracted above the inferior larynx. The inferior Larynx with a large 
osseous bulb extending below and on both sides. 

Anas. Linn. 

QUERQUEDULA. Jlriss. 

Cyanopterus nobis. 

Type. Cyanopterus Rafflesii. 

The above genus consists of that group commonly called the blue-winged teal ; nor do we 
know one instance of a bird agreeing with the character which has not bright azure blue wings, 
except the Garganey, which has, however, dull slate-coloured ones. Anas Rafflesii, King, may be 
considered as a good specimen of the form, which may be always distinguished by the peculiar 
abrupt termination to the upper mandible, which is bent as it were over the lower one, both in front 



39 



[axatix.e. 



and on the sides at the apex. The Garganey comes nearer to the common teal than the rest of the 
senus in external form, but in the form of the trachea differs from it. We have never observed a 
skeleton in any collection except that of the Garganey, which we do not consider typical. 

Affinities. In the form of the bill and trachea this genus approaches that of Chauliodus, but 
differs from it in the former not having the lamellae so much elongated, and in the trachea being 
more enlarged above the inferior larynx. From the following genus it is very distinct in both 
particulars, but agrees with it in general colouring. 




ANATINJE.] 



40 




GENUS XI. RHYNCHASPIS. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus parvis, et non lobatis. Tibia parte quart it 
denudatae. Rostrum longum, ad apicem multum latissimum. Lamella elongate. Nares ovales, 
prope culmine et baso locatee. Lingua obtusa, ad apicem appendieulata, lateralitei una ordine 
setarum brevium, et supra bas setas postice novem spinis instructa ; et duplici ordine centrali 
spinarum brevium ornata. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubute inferiore parte maxima. Larynx inferior bulbo parvo osseo 
latere 

Ext. Char. Feet with the hind toe small, and not lobated. Thighs with a fourth part 
naked. Bill long, much the broadest at the tip. Nostrils oval, placed near the culmen and base. 
Tongue obtuse, with an appendage at the tip, furnished with one row of short bristles on the sides. 
and above these bristles behind with nine spines ; in the middle, above, with a double rank of stout 
spines. 

Anat. Char. Trachea with tube largest inferiorly. Inferior Larynx with a small bulb 
extending on one side and behind. 

Anas. Linn. Swainson. 

Ehvnchaspis. Leach MSS. Steph. 

Spathulea. Flem. 

Type. Rhynchaspis clypeata. 



41 



[anatin^:. 



The proportions of the skeleton are : — Depth of the keel to the length of the sternum as 1 to 
4. Breadth of the pelvis to its length as 1 to 1|. Length of femur to that of the tibia as 1 to 
2|. Height of cranium to its length as 1 to 5. 

Affinities. This and the two following, as well as the preceding genera, are very nearly- 
connected, both in form and habit. 







ANATINiE.] 



42 




GENUS XII. MALACOKHYNCHUS. 

Exr. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus parvis, et non lobatis. Tibia paululum denudatae. 
Rostrum longum, ad apicem midturn latissimum, et lateribus membranis flexilibus instructis. 
Lamella longte. Nares ovales, parvae, prope basin locata;. 

Anat. Char. Ignoti. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toe small, and not lobated. Thiylis little denuded. 
Bill long, at the apex much the broadest, and furnished on the sides with flexible membranes. 
Lamella long. Nostrils oval, small, placed near the base. 

Anat Char. Unknown. 

Anas. Linn. 
Rhynchaspis. L^each. 

Malacorhynchus. Swainson. 

Type. Malacorhynchus membrinacea. 

Affinities. No skeleton is, that I am aware of, at present in England; but we should sup- 
pose that the bony part of the bill does not extend so far laterally at the point as might be supposed, 
or, in other words, is not so broad at the apex. Under this supposition, the bird on which Mr. 
Swainson formed the genus ( Malacorhynchus membrinacea) forms a beautiful link between the 
true shovellers and the following genus. 




43 



[anatin.i:. 




GENUS XIII. CHAULIODES. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus mediocribus, et non lobatis. Rostrum non latins 
ad apicem quam ad basin. Lamella paululum elongatae. Nares ovales, magnae, vix elongatae. 
Lingua obtusa, ad apicem appendiculata, lateribus una ordine setarum brevium, supra has setas 
laterater centrali parte quinque spinis, et in medio supra duplice ordine setarum brevium instructa. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubula inferiore parte maxima, sed supra larynginem inferiorem 
contracta. Larynx inferior bulbo mediocii osseo latere et multum antice tendente. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes of moderate size, and not lobated. Bill not 
broader at the tip than at the base. Lamella elongated. Tongue obtuse, with an appendage at the 
tip, the sides furnished with a rank of short bristles, above these in the middle of the sides with 
five spines, and in the middle of the upper surface with a double rank of short spines. 

A vat. Char. Trachea with the tube enlarged near the lower extremity, but above the 
inferior larynx contracted. Inferior Larynx with a middle-sized osseous bulb extending on one 
^ide and also much anteriorly. 

Anas. Linn. Gmel. Lath. 

C h au liodes. Swa inson . 

Type. Chauliodus Strepera. 




ANATINB.] 



44 



The proportions of the skeleton are: — Depth of the keel to the length of the sternum as 1 to 
5. Breadth of the pelvis to its length as 1 to 1 4-5ths. Length of femur to that of tibia as 1 to 
If. Depth of cranium to its length as 1 to 2j. 

Affinity. The elongated lamellae ally this genus to the two preceding. It appears., 
indeed, to be precisely intermediate between them and the following. 








■ .. . 



■ 



■ 11:1 I 



45 



[ANATlN.t.. 




GENUS XIV. ANAS. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus simplicibus, mediis longiss'imis. Tibia parte 
tertia inferiore denudata. Rostrum lateribus parallelibus. Nares ovales, prope culmen ad basin 
locatae. Lingua obtusa, ad apicem appendiculata, lateraliter una ordine setarum longarum et 
flexilum instructs, supra has setas ad latera sex spinis instructs, et in medio supra duplici ordine 
setarum brevium. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubula equali. Larynx inferior una bulba ossea latere et antice 
extendente in maribus. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes simple, the middle one longest. Thighs with a 
third part naked. Dill with the sides parallel. Nostrils oval, placed near the culmen at the base. 
Tongue blunt, at tbe point with an appendage, the sides furnished with one rank of long and flexible 
bristles, above these bristles in the middle of the sides furnished with six spines, and in the middle 
above with a double rank of short bristles. 

Anat. Char. Trachea with the tube of equal size. Inferior Larynx with one osseous 
bulb on the side and extending anteriorly. 

Anas. Linn. 

BoSCBAS. Swainson. 

Type. Anas Bosckas. 



ANATIN/E.] 



46 



We have here retained the old Linnean name for this genus, instead of that of Boschas 
proposed by Mr. Swainson. The proportions of the skeleton are : — The depth of the keel to the 
length of the sternum as 1 to 5. Breadth of the pelvis to its length as 1 to If. Length of femur 
to that of tibia as 1 to 1J. Depth of cranium to its length as 1 to 3. 

Affinity. In size and the form of the tongue this genus approaches nearest to the last of 
any among the Anatince. 




47 



[ANATIN.'E. 




GENUS XV. CARINA. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus gibbosis, mediis longissimis. Tibia plumatffi. 
Rostrum equale, et caruneuht subglobosa supra nares posita. Nares o vales, magna?, propc culmine 
basi locatae, Caput ad oculos denudatum. Lingua obtusa, ad apicem appendiculata lateraliter una 
ordine setarum et supra has quatuoribus spinis instructis et in medio supra duplici ordine setarum 
brevium armata. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubula ecpiali. Larynx inferior una bulba compressa latere partem 
i partem membrinacea et postice tendente instructo. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes gibbous, the middle longest. Thighs feathered. 
Bill with the sides equal, and with a subglobose tubercule placed above. Nostrils oval, large, 
placed at the base of the bill near the. oilmen. Head naked to the eyes. Tongue obtuse. 
with an appendage at the point, the sides armed with one row of bristles, above these with four 
Spines, and in the middle on the upper side armed with a double row of short bristles. 

Anat. Cm ah. Trachea with the tube equal. The inferior Larynx with one compressed 
bulb, partly osseous, partly membrinaceous, extending on the side and behind. 

Anas. Linn. 

Carina. Ft em. 

Type. Carina moschata. 



ANATIN .!■'..] 



IS 



The proportions of the skeleton are: — Depth of the keel to the length of the sternum as 1 to 
5|. Breadth of the pelvis to its length as 1 to 1±. Length of femur to that of tibia as 1 to |. 
Depth of the cranium to its length as 1 to 2|. The keel of the sternum produced in front. 
Ischiadic foramina large. 

Affinities. To some of the genera in the next sub-family this genus presents an affinity in 
the form of the hind toe, which, though not strictly lohated, is thickened on its lower side. '1 he 
trachea presents considerable affinity to both the sub-family we have placed it in, and also to ihc 
following. The bulb at the inferior larynx much more osseous on its external aspect than among 
the Fuligulina, and less so than among the Anatince : it is also laterally much compressed, as in 
the following sub-family. 










Si 



» 



*'■' 













^ 







hagiosTrvvmtruulus <md' SZvmac/i t /'• \fdanu \ 

:'{;,,,.,;■/>' 3 Coca a FidytUa fama,. MaU. 4 t ■ 



49 [fuligulinjE. 



SUB FAM. IV. FULIGULIN.E. 

Ext. Char. Rostrum ad basin altius-quam latum. Pedes magni, digitis posterioribus 
lobatis, externis vix brevioribus iutermediis. Jiectrices Caudce plerumque breves et flexiles. Ala 
mediocres. 

Anat. Char. Sternum carina parte anteriore vix producta ; postice non ad marginem 
sterni continuata margine duabus fissuris instructs bis postice angustatis, intur magnis et ovalibus; 
nonnunquam autem fissuree vice foraminibus multum latioribus postice quam antice. Costa longe 
in abdomine tendentes processibus marginalibus arcuatis vel ad apicem bifidis. Processus 
coracoides antice vix ultra humeros elongatus. Os furcation arcuatum prsecipua? ad extremus partes 
rami. Pelvis latitudine mediocris, elongata. Cranium ad occiput altius-quam latum. Larynx 
inferior partim ossea, partim membrinacea. 

Ext. Char. Sill higher than broad at the base. Feet large, posterior toe lobated, the 
outer slightly shorter than the middle one. Tail feathers generally short and flexible. Wings 
moderate. 

An AT. Char. Sternum with the keel slightly produced in front, and not continued to the 
posterior margin ; posterior margin furnished with two fissures narrowed posteriorly, each inte- 
riorly large, and oval ; or with two foramina on each side, much broader posteriorly than anteriorly. 
Ribs extending far backwards, with the processes on the posterior margin arcuated or bifid at 
the extremity. Coracoid process slightly elongated anteriorly. Os furcatum with the rami arched 
in front, more so above. Pelvis of moderate width, long. Cranium at the occiput higher than 
broad. 

Type. Fuligula. 

Habit. Aquatic and marine, feeding on small molusca, and occasionally small fish; some 
of the species p >ssess considerable power of flight. 

Affinity. The sterna of some genera of this family, Clangula and Harelda, are furnished 
with an ensiforra process as in the Mergansers. In the former the trachea also much resembles 
that family. To the Anatinm, as we have before stated, we believe it to be connected through the 
genu us and Carina. 



II 



FULIGULIN^E.] 



50 





GENUS I. MICROPTERUS. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus lobatis. Rostrum validum, rugosum. Lamella 
magna?. Nares in medio rostri positse. Tibia plumata?. Ahe breves. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubula equali. Larynx inferior bulbo laterali osseo. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes lobated. Bill strong, wrinkled. Lamella 
large. Nostrils placed in the middle of the bill. Thighs feathered. Wings short. 

Anat. Char. Trachea with the tube of equal size. The inferior Larynx with an osseous 
lateral bulb. 

Anas. Linn. 

Micropterus. King. 

Type. Micropterus Patachonickus, 



51 



[fuligulin.e. 



Affinity. The structure of the hind toe and foot unites this genus to the Fuligulince, while, 
on the other hand, that of the trachea bears a great resemblance to the Anatinee, 




FULIGUL1NJE.] 



52 




GENUS II. MELANITTA. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus lobatis, ct oxternis longissimis. Rostrum magnum, 
basi elevatum. Lamella; magnae, ad marginem eontinuatae. Nares ovak's. magna, in medio rostn 
positae. 

Anat. Char. Trachea uno vel duabus bulbis tubula. Larynx inferior non bulbo 
instructo. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes lobatcd, the outer ones longest. Bill large, 
elevated at the hase. Lamelhe large, continued to the margin. Nostrils oval, large, placed in the 
middle of the bill. 

Axat. Char. Trachea with one or two bulhs on the trachea. The inferior larynx 
without a bulb. 

Melamtta. Boie. 

Anas. Linn. 

Oidemia. Flem. 

Type. Melanitta fusca. 

The proportions of the skeleton are: — The depth of the keel to the length of the sternum, 
as 1 to 4|. Breadth of the pelvis to its length, 1 to 3|. Length of the femur to that of the tibia, 
as 1 to If. Depth of cranium to its length, as 1 to 2\. Keel of the sternum not produced to 
the posterior extremity. 



53 



[fULIGULINjE. 



Affinities. The form of the bill in some of the species of the genus presents an affinity to 
the genus Somateria. !n its general form, however, and the structure of the feet, it bears a close 
resemblance to the foregoing genus, 




FCLIGULINjE.] 



54 




GENUS III. SOMATERIA. 

Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus lobatis, extends mediis equalibus. Rostrum 
mediocre ad basin elevatum, et ad apicem angustatum. LamelUe non ad apicem continuatae. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubulii equali. Larynx inferior bulbosum osseum, bronchia 
sinistra maxima. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the bind toes lobated, the external ones equal to the middle. Bill 
moderate, with the base elevated, and narrowed towards the tip. The Lamella not continued to 
the apex. 

Anat. Char. Trachea with the tubes of equal size throughout. The inferior Larynx 
bulbous, the left bronchia largest. 

Anas. Linn. 

Somateria. Leach. 

Type. Somateria 7>iollissima. 

Affinity. In the form of the inferior larynx this genus approaches near the Anatina. 




55 



[fuliguunje. 




GENUS IV. POLYSTICTA. 



Pedes magni, cligitis posterioribus lobatis. Rostrum ad basin elevatum, ad 
Caput parvum, et cristatum maribus. Cauda brevis et acuta. Remiges 



Ignoti. 
Feet large, with the posterior toes lobated. 
Head small, and crested in the 



Bill elevated at the base, 
male. Tail short, sharp. 



Ext. Char. 
apicem angustatum. 
tertice longfe. 

An at. Char. 

Ext. Char. 
narrowed towards the point. 
Tertiaries long. 

Anat. Char. Unknown. 

Anas. Linn. 

Fuligula. Gould. 

Macro-pus. Nuttall. 

Polvsticta nobis. 

Type. Polysticta stelleri. 

After we bad proposed Polysticta as a new generic name for the Western Duck, we found 
that Nuttall, in his American Ornithology, had also made it into a new genus. Which name has 
the priority we are uncertain ; but that proposed by Mr. Nuttall (Macropus) having been used as 
a generic appellation to a genus of kangaroos, cannot stand. Our own, therefore, is that which 
we have placed at the head of this genus. 



]■! I.HUI.IN'.K.] 



5ti 



Affinity. The long tertiary feathers and the form of the hill in this genus evidently point 
out a near affinity to Somateria, 




57 



fFULIGULIN.E. 







GENUS V. KAMPTORHYNCHUS. 



Ext. Char. Pedes magni, digitis externis mediis aequantibus, posterioribus lobatis. 
Rostrum lateribus ad apicem latum, et flexile. Nares magnas, ovales, prope basum locate. Unguis 
magma et lata. 

O 

Anat. Char. Trachea maribus duabus bulbis tubula. 

Ext. Char. Feet large, the outer toe equal to the middle one, posterior one lobated. 
Bill broad towards the point at the sides, flexible. Nostrils large, oval, placed near the base. 
Nail large and broad. 

Anat. Char. Trachea in the males with two bulbs on the tube. 

Anas. Linn. 

Fuligula. Ray, Leach. 

KAMPTORHYNCH US nulls. 

Type. Kamptorhynckus Labradora. 

This genus we have formed on F. Labradora Bonap, the variety it exhibits being amply 
sufficient to distinguish it from any other genus. Nothing that I am aware of is known concerning 

; tomical characters, besides those mentioned in Wilson, and quoted at length under the head 

Kamp. Labradora. 






i~ 



l'l I.KH'LIVE.] 



58 



Affinities. We have never seen the skeleton of this bird, nor are we aware of one in 
existence in this kingdom. As far, however, as Ave are acquainted with it, from Wilson's account, 
its true place appears to be somewhere near that we have assigned to it. 




59 



[fuuguunjs. 




GENUS Yl. CALLICHEN. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus lobatis, intermediis vix longissimis. Tibia 
plumatae. Rostrum capite equale, prope basum latissimum. Lamella yalidse, et acl marginem 
continuatae. Nares subovales, magnae. Cauda mediocris. Caput cristatum. 

Anat. Char. Trachea duobus bulbis tubula. Larynx inferior bulbo lateralis partim 
membrinaceo, partim osseo, latere complanato. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes lobated, the middle ones scarcely the longest. 
Thighs feathered. Dill equal to the head, broadest at the base. Lamella strong, and con- 
tinued to the margin. Nostrils suboval, large, Tail moderate. Head crested. 

Anat. Char. Trachea with two bulbs on the tube. Inferior Larynx with a lateral bulb, 
partly membrinaceous, partly osseous, on the side flattened. 

Anas. Linn. 

Fuligula. Ray, Leach. 

Glaucium, Querquedula. Briss. 

CALLICHEN. Brehm. 

Mergoidf.s nobis. 

Type. Callichen rujina. 



FUL1GULINJE.] 



GO 



We first instituted this genus on F. rufina, after having observed the trachea of that species. 
To this, however, will be added the beautiful species Fuligula caryophylacea. With any 
anatomical character further than that above given we are unacquainted, not having ever seen the 
skeleton. 

Affinities. In having bulbs on the tube of the trachea, and also in general form, this bird 
presents considerable affinity to the Mergansers. 




61 



[fuligulin.e. 




GENUS VII. FULIGULA. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus lobatis, externis inter mediis equantibus. Tibia 
plumatse. Rostrum prope apicem latissimuin, obtusum. Lamella: abbreviatae et non ad marginem 
continuata?. Nares subovales, parvissimee. Cauda brevissima. Lingua obtusa ad apicem appen- 
diculata, lateribus una ordine setarum flexilum instructis ; in medio ad latera supra has setas 
quatuoribus spinis instructis. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubula inferiore parte contractu. Larynx inferior bulbo laterali, 
partim membrinaeeo, partim osseo, latere complanato. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the hind toes lobated, the outer ones scarcely ecpial to the middle. 
Thighs feathered, Bill l)roadest at the point, blunt. Lamella: abbreviated, and not continued to 
the margin. Nostrils suboval, very small. Tail very short. Tongue obtuse, with an appendage 
at tlie tip, and the sides furnished with one row of flexible bristles ; in the middle with the sides 
above the bristles furnished with four spines. 

A nat. Char. Trachea with inferior portion of the tube contracted. The inferior Larynx 
with one lateral bulb, partly membrinaceous, partly osseous, on the sides compressed. 

Anas. Linn. 






I'i ligula. Ray, Leach. 

NYROCA. L'lr wing. 

GLAI (11 M, Ql ERQ1 EDI LA. 

\'\ i-K. Fuligula Marilla. 



J Iris*. 



KULIGULINJE.] 



62 



We here again assume the name to this genus given to it by Hay, as being the oldest. 
The proportions of the skeleton are : — Depth of the keel to the whole length of the sternum as 
1 to 4. Breadth of the pelvis to its length as 1 to 1^. Length of femur to that of tibia as 1 to 12. 
Depth of cranium to its length as 1 to 2|. Sternum with the keel produced anteriorly. Nibs 
projecting far backwards. 

Affinities. To the following genus this bears a near affinity in the external form and that 
of the trachea and skeleton, as well as to the foregoing. 





/ Ji> 




UUbli&y 






\\ LEV I . . 



63 



[fuligulin^e. 




GENUS VIII. NYROCA. 



Est. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus lobatis, externis mediis vix aequantibus. Tibice 
plumatee. Rostrum brevius capite, prope apicem latissimum, obtusum. Lamella abbreviate, etnon 
ad marginem continuatse. Naves subovales, parvse. Cauda brevis. Lingua obtusa, ad apicem 
appendiculata, lateribus una et in medio duplici ordine setarum flexilum instructis, ad latera supra 
bas setas quinque spinis instructis. 

Anat. Char. Trachea tubula in medio multum expandente, contractu supra larynginem 
inferiorem. Larynx inferior partim ossea, partim membrinacea. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes lobated, the outer ones scarcely equal to the 
middle. Tibia feathered. Bill shorter than the head, near the point broadest, obtuse. Lamella 
abbreviated, and not continued to the margin. Nostrils suboval, small. Tail short. Tongue 
obtuse, with an appendage at the point, the sides with one and the middle with a double rank of 
flexible bristles, above these bristles on the sides armed with five strong spines. 

ANAT. CHAR. Trachea with the tube much expanded in the middle, again contracted 
above the inferior larynx. The inferior Larynx partly osseous, partly membranaceous. 

Anas. Linn. 

Nyroca. Flem. 

'\'\ i'K. Nyroca leucopthalmus. 

Dr. Fleming included the Scaup, Tufted Duck, and Pochards in his genus Ni/roca. It is, 
however, now restricted to the Pochards which want the crested head. 






FITLIGULINiE.] 



64 



The proportions of the skeleton are : — The depth of the keel to the whole length of the 
sternum, as 1 to 5. Breadth of the pelvis to its length, as 1 to 2. Length of femur to that of 
tibia, as 1 to 1|. Depth of the cranium to its length, as 1 to 2§. The keel of the sternum much 
produced anteriorly. 

Affinities. This genus, as before stated, presents an affinity to the last in general form, and 
also in that of the inferior larynx. 








aMbafA 



HABKLOA G3LACIAJL.IS & TtUCUBA. 

2 Thorite tfuA'at owe 



65 



[fuligulix.e. 







GENUS IX. HARELDA. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus lobatis, extends mediis vix equantibus. Tibia 
plumatoe. Rostrum mediocre, baso ad apicem angustatum. Lamella parte omnino obliterates. 
Nares lineares, versus media rostri posita?. Cauda maribus elongata. 

Axat. Char. Trachea tubula inferiore parte tuberculosa a posteriore membrami tecta. 
Larynx inferior bulbosa, partim ossea, partim membrinacea. 

Ext. Char. Feet with tbe posterior toes lobated, the outer one scarcely equal to the 
middle. Thighs feathered. Bill moderate, narrowed from the base to the apex. Lamella 
altogether obliterated at the points. Nostrils linear, situated about the middle of the Bill. Tail 
in the male elongated. 

Anat. Char. Trachea on the lower part posteriorly covered with a membrane. The 
inferior Larynx bulbous, partly osseous, partly membranaceous. 

Harelda. Ray. Leach. 

Ax as. Linn. 

QC ERQUEDL'LA. BrisS. 

&.ANGULA. Flem. 

Type. -Harelda Glacialis. 

This genus having been instituted by Ray. requires no alteration. The depth of the keel to 
the whole length of the sternum is as 1 to 4. The length of the femur to that of the tibia as 
1 to 1--. The height of the head to its length as 1 to 2f . There is a small ensifonn process 
attached to the posterior margin of the sternum. 

K 



1TLIGI l.IN.*:.] 



66 



Affinity. The sternum in this genus, as well as in the next, being furnished with an 
ensiform process, evidently points out an affinity between them. The trachea, however, differs most 
materially, and the elongated tail is unlike any other genus of the family: still, that this is its true 
place no doubt can remain, the ribs projecting far backward over the abdomen, and the hind toe 
being largely lobated. 







- 




' . 






1. SUBLET*:'. | CCA, 

2. TRACHEA OF I I . ' ! LS , 



67 



[fuliuuun.e. 





GENUS X. CLANGULA. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus lobatis, externis mediis vix requantibus. Tibia 
plurnosre. Rostrum parvum, capite brevius, a basi ad apicem angustatum. Nares ovales, medium 
versus rostri positae. Lamella ad apicem pene obliteratfe. Cauda rectricibus rigidis, sed ad apicem 
flexilibus. Lingua obtusa, ad apicem appeudiculata, lateribus online uno setarum flexiluni 
iustructis. 

Axat. Char. Trachea tubula bulbo uno instructs. Larynx inferior bulbo maguo partim 
membrinaceo, partim osseo. Costa a postice longe tendentes. Sternum postice appendice 
ensiformi pawo. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes lobated, the outer ones scarcely equal to the 
middle. Tibia feathered. Bill small shorter than the head, narrowed from the base to the point. 
Nostrils oval, placed towards the middle of the bill. Lamellee almost obliterated at the top. Tail 
with the quills stiff, but flexible at the points. Tongue obtuse, with an appendage at the point, 
the sides garnished with one row of flexible bristles. 

Awat. Char. Trachea with one bulb on the tube. The inferior Larynx with a large 
bulb, partly membrinaceous, partly osseous. Ribs extending far backwards. Sternum behind 
with a small ensiform appendage. 

Anas. Pars. Linn. 

CLANGULA. Leach, Plem. 

Ql'EKQl KM I. a. liriss. 

Type. Clangula vulgaris. 



FULIGUL1N.1.] 



68 



This genus was instituted by Dr. Leach. Brisson included the birds contained in it in the 
genus Querquedula, which is now applied solely to a genus of fresh-water ducks (Anat'uUc). The 
depth of the keel to the length of the sternum in this genus is as 1 to 4|. Breadth of the pelvis to 
its length as 1 to 1|. Length of femur to that of tibia as 1 to 1^. Depth of cranium to its length 
as 1 to 21. 

Affinity. The disposition to rigidity, and the form of the tail, as well as that of the hill and 
feet, evidently point out an affinity to the next family ; while the skeleton approaches to that of the 
genus Mergus, both in possessing an ensiform appendage to the sternum, and in the form of the 
inferior larynx. 







69 [erismaturin.e. 



SUB PAM. V. ERISMATURINjE. 



Ext. Char. Rostrum ad basin altius-quam latum. Pedes magni, digitis posterioribus 
lobatis, externis et intermediis inter se aequalibus. Rectrices Cauda longfe et validae. Ahc 
breves. 

Anat. Char. Ignoti. 

Ext. Char. Bill higher than broad. Feet large, posterior toe lobated, the outer toe equal 
o the middle. Tail feathers long and stiff. 

Anat. Char. Unknown. 

Type. Erismatura. 

Habit. Like the last, truly aquatic. 

Affinity. The shortness of the wing deprives these birds of any great power of flight, 
consequently the species have not a wide geographical range. We are not aware that the use 
of the stiff tail feathers found on birds of this family and the cormorants has ever been ascertained, 
and which character appears to separate them so distinctly from the other families of ducks : they 
are certainly of great use to them when on shore and stationary, their position being necessarily 
upright, the legs being placed far backwards. We should also suppose them to be connected with 
their motion in the water while diving, perhaps giving them the power of raising or lowering 
themselves suddenly. If it should be eventually ascertained that fish constitute any considerable 
portion of their food, this power must be of great use to them, as well as to the cormorants, in 
following their prey through the water. 






ERISMATUR1N.E.] 



70 




I 



GENUS I. THALASSORNIS. 

Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus lobatis, extends inter-mediis vix aquantilms. 
Tibia plumosae. Rostrum validum. latum ; lateribus parallellibus ; et ungue magna armatum. 
Nares parva?, ovales. in medio rostri culminem versus positae. Cauda rotundata, rectricibus 

brevibus et subrigidis mstmcta. Aim breves, remigibus ad apices incurvatis. 

Anat. Char. Ignoti. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes lobated, the outer ones scarcely equal to the 
middle. Thighs feathered. Bill strong, broad ; the sides parallel, and armed with a large nail. 
Nostrils small, oval, placed in the middle of the bill towards the cuhnen. Tail rounded, furnished 
with short and slightly rigid feathers. Wings short, with the quills incurved at the apex. 

Anat. Char. Unknown. 

Thalassornis nobis. 

Type. Thalassornis leueonotus. 

Affinity. The above genus appears to form a connecting link between the genus < langula 
and Biziura, the structure of the tail being nearly that of the former genus, while the bill is thai 
of the latter. 




71 



[erismatirin.d. 




GENUS II. BIZIURA. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus lobatis, externis inter mediis aequantibus. Tibia 
plumosae. Rostrum validum, latum, ad apicem angustatum. Mandibulce ambfe unguiculatae, 
inferior in maribus palea. magna pendente instructa. Nares rotundata?, in medio rostri, culminem 
versus positae. Cauda rotundata, rectricibus rigidis et acutis instructa. Ala remigibus, ad apices 
incurvatis. 

Anat. Char. Ignoti. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes lobated, the external ones equal to the middle. 
Thighs feathered. Bill strong, broad, narrowed towards the apex. Both mandibles furnished with 
nails, the inferior one in the males with a large hanging wattle. Nostrils rounded, placed in the 
middle of the bill towards the culmen. Tail rounded, furnished with stiff and acute quills. Wings 
with the quills at the points incurved. 

Anat. Char. Unknown. 

BiznjRA. Steph. Leach. 

Type. Biziura lobata. 



ERISMATURIN^E.] 



72 



Mons. Temminck included this genus, together with all the other aquatic ducks, in one 
large genus Hydrobates. The name of Biziura -was first given to it, according to Stephens, in 
Shaw's Zoology, by Leach, in his MSS. and was afterwards published by Mr. Stephens in the 
above work. It is much to be regretted that no skeleton or parts to illustrate the anatomy of this 
extraordinary bird have hitherto been brought to England. 

Affinity. It bears considerable resemblance to the other genera of fhe family, but differs 
from all in having the lobe under the chin. 




73 



[erismatirix.f. 







GENUS III. ERISMATURA. 



Ext. Char. Pedes iligitis posterioribus lobatis, extemis mediis vix sequantibus. Tibiee 
plumatee. Rostrum validum, aut mediocre, prope apicem latissimum. Mandibula unguiculata?. 
Nares ovales, parvae, in medio rostri versus culmiuem posits. Cauda rotundata, rectricibus 
rigidis. Ala remigibus paululum incurvatis. 

Axat. Char. Ignoti. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes lobated, the outer one scarcely equal to the inner. 
Thighs feathered. JJilt moderate, broadest near the tip. Mandibles furnished with nails. 
Nostrils oval, small, placed in the middle of the bill towards the eulmen. Tail rounded, with 
the quills still'. Wings with the quills a little incurved. 

Anat. Char. Unknown. 

A NA8. 1. ni a . 

Oxyura. Bonap. 

ErISMATURA. Jioinip. 
UNDINA. (in ii Id. 

(ivMM u\. Nuttall. 
Type. Erismatura rubida. 



ERISMATURIN.E.J 



74 






The genus Oxyura was first instituted by the Prince of Musignano, for the reception ot 
Ana* rubida, Wils. Mr. Gorier having overlooked it, formed his genus Undina, or Anas 
Leucocephala, Linn, a bird of the same conformation. Mr. Nuttall having discovered that the 
name of Oxyura had been before used for a genus of creepers, substituted that of Gymnura for it. 
The Prince of Musignano had, however, in the appendix to the same work in which he named the 
'jvmis Oxyura, also called it Erismatura, which name will stand, that of Oxyura having bei a 
before employed for another genus. 

Affinity. Some of the species in this genus appear to present a slighi approach to the next 
sub-family, the tail being diminished in length and rigidity, and also in the wings not being so 
much curved inwards as in the last. 




^Ete^ 



J 






<, 








&v 



■ 






.' J . ' 



75 fMEKGAMN.i: 



SUB FAM. VI. MERGING, 

Ext. Char. Rostrum mediocre, ad apicem angustatum acuminatum et dentibus ad latera 
instructum. Digiti posteriores lobati. 

Anat. Char. Sternum carina parte anteriore valde angustata et non ad marginem 
continuata, margine posteriore appendice cnsiformi instructo, et duobus foraminibus ad latera. 
Processus coracoides antice elongatus. Os furcation arcuatum, rami lateraliter compressi. 
Trachea uno vel duobus bulbis tubula. Larynx inferior in maribus bulbo osseo instructa. 
(Esophagus dilateri potest. Gigeria interne magna cavitioue. 

Ext. Char. Bill moderate, narrowed to tire point, acuminate, and at the sides armed with 
teeth. Posterior Toes lobated. 

Anat. Char. Sternum with the keel anteriorly produced, posteriorly narrowed, and not 
continued to the margin, furnished with an ensiform process and two lateral foramina. Coracoid 
process elongated anteriorly. Os furcation arched, the branches laterally compressed. Trachea 
with one or two enlargements on the tube. The inferior Larynx in the males furnished with an 
osseous bulb. Oesophagus dilatable. The Gizzard internally with a large cavity. 

Type. Mergus. 

Affinities. Having, under the head Lamellirostres, stated some of the affinities which exist 
between the family generally and others, we. have merely, under the head sub-families, stated those 
which hold between each contained in the above family. In both external and internal character 
the strongest relation exists between the above and that of Fuligulince, the genera Clangula and 
Harelda in particular, both of which possess the ensiform process on the posterior margin of the 
Bternunij and the latter a bulb on the tube of the trachea, formed by enlarged rings. The genus 
Callichen posesses two bulbs, but the skeleton does not approach so nearly as that of the two 
genera before mentioned. To the Erismaturiuce we suspect the affinity is not so great, certainly 
not so far as relates to external character, although we have placed them contiguous, there being 
evidently a double point of affinity to the Divers. 

Habit. The habit of this sub-family is truly acpiatic, its length of body, and legs being 
placed far backwards, give the birds contained in it great power of diving. Its food consists 
principally of small fish. 






MERGANINJE.] 



76 




GENUS I. MERGUS. 



Ext. Char. Pedes digitis posterioribus lobatis, mediis vix longissimis. Tibia plumatae. 
Rostrum a baso ad apicem angustatum, lateribus serratis, apice unguiculato. Naves subovales, 
mediocres, versus medium rostri posits. Lingua acuminata, lateribus ordine um>. parte central] 
duplici ordine setarum reflexarum instructa. 

Anat. Crar. Trachea uno vel duobus bulbis tubula in maribus instructa. Larynx inferior 
bulbo magno, parte membrinaceo, parte ossco. Costa postice longt- tendentes. 

Ext. Char. Feet with the posterior toes lobated, the middle ones scarcely the longest. 
Thighs feathered. Hill narrowed from the base to the point, the apex with a nail. Nostrils oval, 
moderate, placed towards the middle of the bill. Tongue pointed, the sides armed with one and 
the middle with two rows of bristles. 

Anat. Char. Trachea with one or two bulbs on the tube in the males. The inferior 
Larynx with a large bulb, partly osseous, partly membrinaceous. Ribs extending far backwards. 

Mergus. Ray, Linn. Gmel. Briss. 

Merganser. Briss. 

Type. Mergus serrator. 




- 



... 



I ■ 



77 



[MERGANlNjB. 



Mr. Stephens, in vol. XII. p. 156, of Shaw's Zoology, divides this genus, separating from it 
the Smew (Mergus albellusj, and placing the other Mergansers under the genus Merganser, Briss. 
The depth of the keel to the length of the sternum in this genus is as 1 to 5. Breadth of tin 
pelvis to its length as 1 to 2L Length of the cranium to its depth as 1 to 3\. Length of the 
femur to the length of the tibia as 1 to If. 

We have spoken hefore of the affinities of this genus under the head of the sub-family 
Merginte. 




SYNOPSIS SPECIERUM. 
CHOR1STOPUS SEM1PALMATUS. 

Cho. — Capite colloque nigro, dorso superiore alba 

SEMI PALM ATED GOOSE. 
Cho. with the head and neck hlack, the upper part of the back white. 

FT. IN. IN. 

Length 3 4 Tarsi 4 

Bill 4 Middle toe \h 

Cho. : with the upper part of the hack, rump, and below, with the exception of the tibiae, white ; 
the remainder and the tibiae glossy hlack ; legs and hill orange ; the nail of the latter horn colour. 

Anas semipahnata Linn. Trans, iv. 103. 

Lath. I ml. Orn. App. 69. 

iS mipalmated Goose Lath. Chen. Syn. Sup. '2, 347. 

Anas melanoleuca Lath, huh Orn. App. 69. 

Trachea Lin. Trans, vol. xv. p. 383, pi, xiii, xiv. 

Inhabits New Holland, and utters a shrill whistling note. 

Mr. Yarrell, in vol. 15, p. 383, gives the following anatomical pecularities of this bird. The 
trachea "was situated on the outside of the left pectoral muscle, under the skin, sufficiently raised 
under the wing that respiration would not be impeded when the bird rested with its breast on llie 
ground, the parallel tubes being firmly attached both to the muscle and the skin by cellular tissue. 
The clavicle on the right side of the bird is of the usual character, but that on the left is both 
shorter and wider, having an aperture about the middle, the sides diverging, with a projecting 
point on the inner side, to which the tube of the trachea is firmly attached about two inches above 
the bone of divarication. The trachea lying on the left side of the bird, the lower portion of I In 
tube, in its passage to the lungs, crosses the left branch of the furcula at a right angle, but becom- 
ing attached to this projection of the clavicle, receives from the point described its centrical direction 
into the body. The whole length of the windpipe in this bird is four feet eight inches." In a 
young bird dissected by Mr. Yarrell, the trachea was not nearly so much convoluted. 



79 



PLECTROPTERUS GAMBENSIS. 

Phc. — Ater: subtus albiis. 



GAMBA GOOSE. 



Plec. black ; below white. 



IN. IN. IN. 

Length 391 Naked part of the bill 5 Tarsi 5 

Plec. : smaller wing coverts, belly, neck, and thighs white ; tbe remainder deep purplish 
black ; spur on the wing of the male one inch long ; male with a large knob on the culmen, at the 
base of the bill. 

Female smaller than the male, and with the knob at the culmen of the bill smaller. 

Plectropterus Gambensis Stejih. Shaw Zool. 12, 7. 

. li/as Gambenses Linn. S//st. Nat. 1 , 195. 

Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1, 503. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 1. 839. 

Shan; Mus. Sev.pl. p. 231. 

An African species, inhabiting the Gamba. 

The following are some notes we took on the dissectiou of a female specimen. The length of 
the intestinal, from gizzard to anus, 6 feet 4 inches ; from caeca to anus 4 inches ; the length of 
cfeca 5f inches. Trachea acted upon by two pairs of muscles ; first pair the usual sterno tracheal 
ones ; second pair diverging from the trachea higher than the first, and inserted in the coracoids. 
Tube of large calibre, contracted slightly just above the inferior larynx, which resembles in form 
that of the true geese. The bronchire of equal diameter. OZsophagus placed on the right side of 
the neck, and much dilated in the middle. The sternum long and narrow. 

The above account appears to bear a considerable resemblance to that of the Cereopsis of Mr. 
Yarrell. 

N. P. Our cut of the bill and foot illustrating the genus was taken from a female specimen. 



so 



CEREOFS1S NOVA HOLLANDI/E, 

( 'er. — Cineriua tectricibus alarum atribus raaculis ornatis. 

NEW HOLLAND CEREOPSIS. 
Cer. blue grey, spotted on the wing coverts with black. 

IN. 

Length 34 Middle toe 3£ 

Outer 3- 

II iiul toe 11 



IN. 



Tarsi 4 Outer 3—2^ 



8 



Cer. : blueish grey, with the tail, under and upper tail coverts, and a few spots on the scapulars, 
black; bill black ; cere covering the nostrils greenish yellow ; webs scolloped, as in the Sandwich 
Island goose; nostrils large and round; legs orange ; feet black. 

Cereopsis .\ bvee Hollandiai Lath. Ind. Orn. Sup. 67. 

Anser Griseus Veil!. 2 edit. Die. Hist. Nat. '23— 338. 

Cereopsis cendree Temm. PI. col. 2 ; . 

Now found in most of our large museums ; has also been brought over alive. Appears to dread 
the water, and feed chiefly on grass. Inhabits New Holland. 

In the Zoological Proceedings for January 25, 1831, we find the following: Mr. Yarrell 
stated, that having examined the body of the bird, he had remarked that its trunk was much 
shorter than that of the true geese, and more triangular in its shape ; the pectoral muscles were 
large and dark coloured; the trachea was of large and nearly uniform calibre, without convolution, 
and attached in its descent to the right side of the neck, as in the heron and bittern ; in the form 
of its bone of divarication and bronchice it most resembled the same part in the geese. The muscles 
of voice were two pairs, one pair attached to the shafts of the os furcatorium, the other to the inner 
lateral surface of the sternum. The lobes of the liver were of large size, morbidly dark in colour ; 
their substance broke down under the finger on the slightest pressure. The stomach, a true gizzard, 
was of small size as compared with the bulk of the bird. The first duplicature of intestine was six 
inches in length, at the returning portion of which the biliary and pancreatic ducts entered ; from 
thence to the origin of the caeca four feet six inches ; the caeca nine inches each ; the colon and 
rectum together five inches : the whole length of the intestines was seven feet five inches. The 
stomach and intestinal viscera were loaded with fat; the other parts exhibited nothing remarkable. 
Internally this bird, which was a male, resembled the true geese, but externally, in the character of 
the bones, particularly in the rounded form of the edge, and great depth of the keel of the sternum, 
and the lateral situation of the trachea in reference to the cervical vertebrae, it was decidedly similar 
to the Ardeithc. 



81 



CHLOEPHAGA SANDVICENSIS. 

Ohio. — Brunnea, vertice, genis, colloque parte posteriore, atris. 

SANDWICH ISLAND GOOSE. 

Chlo. brown, with the crown, cheeks, and line down the back of the neck, black. 

m. ik. 

Length 23 Middle toe 31 

Tarsi 31 Outer 2 J 

Bill 11 Inner 2| 

Hind toe ... . ^ 

Chlo. : crown, cheeks, quills, and a line down the back of the neck black ; remainder of the neck 
bright brownish grey ; quills, tail, and upper tail coverts white ; remainder ashy grey, darker on 
the back, with each feather tipped with brown or grey ; ring round the neck brown ; wings 
black, the edges of the feathers lighter ; legs, feet, and bill black ; webs deeply scolloped. 

Bernicla Sandvicensis Vig. Zool. P?-o. May 27, 1834. 

Inhabits the Sandwich Islands. 

An interesting account of the habits of this bird, while confined in Lord Derby's menagerie, by 
that nobleman, will be found in the Zoological Proceedings as above quoted, when he states they 
laid four eggs of a white colour, and large in proportion to the size of the bird, two of which were 
hatched, and one reared ; since which time also another hatch has been reared by the Zoological 
Society. 



82 




)* 



, i 



CHLOEl'HAGA MAGELLANICA. 

Chlo. Mas. — Albus, dorso subtusque atro transveraum strigato ; rostro. pedibus, taraisque nuns. 

( 'lilo. Fern. — Femiginea ; subtus albus atro strigato ; colloque canescente ; tarsis rubris ; pedibus nigris. 

UPLAND MAGELLANIC GOOSE. 

Chlo. Mas. white, with the back and under surface transversely barred with black; the bill, 
feet, and legs black. 

Chlo. Fein, ferruginous ; below white barred with black ; neck hoary ; legs red ; the feet black. 

IX. IN. 

Male : Length 26 Inner toe 1| 

Bill 1| Middle 2| 

Tarsi 3 Outer toe 2£ 

Head, neck, under surface, and back white, the two latter barred with black ; wing coverts and 
secondaries white; tertiaries and bastard wings blue black, tipped with white; hill and legs black. 
the latter approaching to orange in drier! specimens. 

IN. IN. 

Fern. Length 25 Middle toe 2^ 

Bill 6f Outer 2~ 

r«ra li Inner 1 ^ 

Lower part of the neck, upper part of the hack, and breast light ferruginous, barred with black ; 
head and neck grey or hoary brown ; quills, tail, upper tail cove its, and lower part of the back 
black, glossed with green inflections ; tertiaries long, grey ; secondaries white, behind which is a 
bar of black; wing spot (formed by the secondary coverts) metallic green ; wing coverts, belly, and 
vent white ; flanks white barred with black ; bill black ; legs orange, with the inside black. 

Young: the young birds of both sexes have the head and upper part of the neck brownish asli ; 
below greyish white lineated with dark brown; upper part of the hack grey barred with black; 
rump and scapulars deep ash; thighs white barred with light brown; vent brownish black; middle 
of the belly and wing coverts white ; hill as in the adults ; legs greenish black. 

Bemicla leucoptera Less. Traite d' Orn. 627. 

Anas Gmel. Syst. 1 . 51 I 5. 

Loth. Tnd. Orn. 2. 835. 

Bemicla Steph. Sk. Zool. 12. 58. 

Anas Magellanica Grml. Syst. Nat. 1. 505. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 83G. 

Bemicla Strph. Sh. Zool. 12. 61. 

Anas Picta Gmel Syst. 1 . 504. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 830. 



S3 



Bernichi Steph. Sh. Zoo!. 12. 60. 

If hite-minged Antarctic Goose Bromn. Must. Zoo/, pi. 40. 

Bastard Goose Lath. Syn. 6. 440. 

Magellanicce Goose Lath. Syn. 6. 443. 

Painted Goose Lath. Syn. 6. 443. 

Oie des des Malouines Buff. Ois. ix. 69. 

Less. Traite Orn. 627. 
L' Oie des terres Magellaniques Buff. Ois. ix. p. o$, pi. En. 1006. 

Inhabits the southern extremity of America and the Falkland Isles ; found generally in flights, 
according to Lesson ; though we are informed by Charles Darwin, Esq. that it is generally found 
in pairs. 

The changes which the plnmage of the female of this speeies undergoes are very extraordinary. 
With those of the male we are at present ignorant, as to whether it assumes the white state at once 
or not. The young female, which is the Anas Picta of authors, first in its approach to the adult 
state, has the black bars on the back and neck, which become ferruginous ; those on the flanks 
become darker, and the intermediate spaces white ; the head also becomes ashy grey, and the legs 
approach to deep orange. Before the time of incubation black bars again appear on the neck, 
breast, and the upper part of the back, and the ferruginous colouring becomes lighter ; the vent 
and under tail coverts are in very old birds white ; in younger ones ferruginous, the legs become of 
a brighter orange, and the head and neck become brown. 

Such are what we believe to be the changes of this bird : for material assistance in its 
investigation we are indebted to Charles Darwin, Esq. and also for the trachea from "which our 
figure is taken. The inferior larynx is furnished with a hollow rounded bulb, very similar to that 
of the common widgeon, but differing in its form, being flattened superiorly, and of a much stronger 
structure than is usual among the wading ducks. It may at once be distinguished from all the 
other tracheee with which we are acquainted, by an indented line on the lower surface of the bulb, 
(Vide our plate.) 






84 



BERNICLA ANTARCTICA. 

Ber. Miis. — Albus, remigibus primariia apicibus nigris. 

Ber. Fern. — Nigra, dorso subtusque albo transversim strigato; occipite biunneo: rostro aurantiaco. 

ANTARCTIC GOOSE. 

Ber. Mas. white, with the ends of the primary quills black. 

Ber. Fern, black, with the back anil beneath transversely striped with white ; the occiput brown ; 
the bill orange. 

IN. IN. 

Male : Length 25 ram 2± 

Bill 1 7-12tbs 

Entirely white except the apical half of the primaries, which are ashy black. The back of 
the head in young birds is tinged with cinereous ; legs orange ; bill (in the preserved specimens we 
have seen) black, with an orange patch over the nostrils : but Azara says it is orange. 

IN. IN. 

Fern. : Length 26 Inner toe 2 

Bill H Middle 3J 

Tarsi 2| Outer £ 

Neck, breast, and belly black barred with white, the bars minute towards the head ; back 
part of the head umber brown ; scapulars and primaries very dark brown, sometimes black ; 
smaller wing coverts and secondaries white ; tertiaries blue green ; tail, lower part of the back, 
under tail coverts, and thighs, white ; bill and legs orange ; toes and webs black in dried specimens. 

Anas Antarctica Gtnel. Syst. 1. 505. 

Lath. I ml Orn. 2. S35. 

Bernicla Steph. Sh. Zool. 1 'J. 59. 

Anser candidus IV.!!. Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat. 23. 331. 

En Method, 3. 351. 

Steph. Sh. Zool. 12. 38. 

Ganso Blanco Azara Tarax del Paraguay, 3. 406. 

Die anarctque, fan Voy. de la ( 'oquille, pi. 50. 

Antarctic Goose Loth. Gen. Syn. (>'. 442. 

The male of this species appears to have been first discovered by Azara. A good plate of 
the female will be found in the " Voyage de la Cocpiille." It inhabits South America and the 
adjoining islands, frequenting the sea coast and the lowlands adjoining, from whence it is called by 
Mr. Darwin, in his amusing Journal, the Lowland Goose. For the trachea from which our figure 
is taken we are indebted to the above-named friend. The bulb of the inferior larynx is not flattened 
above as in the last bird, but altogether bears considerable resemblance to it and the wading ducks, 
from which latter, in common with all other geese, it may be distinguished by the rings of the 
trachea being more massive, and also by the form of the tube, which is always contracted towards 
the inferior larynx, while in the wading ducks it always expands in that part. 

The flesh is not good food. Skins of both sexes are in the museum of the Zoological Society, 
brought home by Capt. King. 



S5 



BERNICLA RUFICOLLIS. 

Ber. — Vertice colloque pcsteriore ati'is ; genis rufis. 

RED-NECKED GOOSE. 

Ber. with, the crown and neck posteriorly black ; the cheeks red. \ 

Length 21 inches. V 

Ber. : crown, forehead, and hack of the neck and throat, black; on the cheek a patch of brown 
margined by a line of white, which afterwards passes down the neck and breast, beyond which is 
a bar of white ; belly, wings, and tail, black ; abdomen, vent, upper and under tail coverts white ; 
wing coverts margined with white; bill and legs fuscous. 

Anser ruficollis Pall. Spic. 6. 21. 

Anas ruficollis Gmel. Syst. 1 . 511. 

Anas torquata Gmel. Syst. 1. 514. 

Bernicla ruficollis Stejm. Sh. Zool. 12. 53. 

Red-breasted goose Perm. Arct. Zool. 4. 571 . 

Lath. Syst. 6, 455. 

A few specimens have at different times been killed in the British isles. It is a native of the 
arctic region, and is said to retire to Siberia and the Frozen Ocean to breed. Temminck informs 
us that it is in abundance near the rivers Ob and Lena during the breeding season. Nothing, how- 
ever, appears to be known of its nidincation or habits. 



BERNICLA BRENTA. 

li<r. — Cinerea, capite colloque nigra; hoc lateribus albo maculatis. 

BRENT BERN 1 CLE. 
:. cinereous, with the head and neck black; the latter on the sides with a white patch. 



IN. 



Length 29 Tarsi 2 2-5tha 

Bill 1 2-5tha Middle toe 2 

Ber : head, neck, and breast black, on each side of the neck a patch of white; back and wing 



86 

coverts brown, with the edges of the feathers paler ; below dirty white, with a yellow tinge; the 
margin of the feathers pure white ; back and upper tail coverts black ; neck and bill black. 

Bernicla Brenta Steph. Sh. Zool. 12. Hi. 

Anas Bernicla Linn. St/*/. 1 . 198. 

Gmel. Sf/st. 1. 513. 

Lalh. I in!. On/. 2. Ml. 

Brent Goose Penn. Arct. Zool. 2-N. 478. 

Le Oravant Buff. Ois. 9. pi. 87. 

Inhabits the same countries with B. Leucopsis ; its nest is made of grass and sea-weed in morasses ; 
it lays ten or twelve eggs, perfectly white. 

Like its congeners, it is easily domesticated. The trachea and inferior larynx is that of the 
typical geese, but slightly expanded below the glottis. 



BERNICLA LEUCOPSIS. 

Bo: — Cinerea. capite colloijue atro ; facie alba. 

COMMON BERNICLE. 
Eer. cinereous, with the head and neck black ; the face white. 

IN. IN. 

Length 25 Tarsi 2± 

Bill 1| Middle tor 2* 

Ber. : cheeks, forehead, and throat white ; crown, neck, and breast black ; above blue grey, 
with the margins of the feathers lighter, within which there is a line of black ; tail and quills 
black ; tail coverts and the under surface white ; the flanks with some dark bars of grey. 

Anser Leucopsis Becks. Nat. Deut. 4. 921. 

Anas Leucopsis Temm. .Man. 2. 828. 

Bernicle Penn. Arct. Zool. 2 N. 479. 

Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 466. 
Le Bernache Buff. Ois. 9. 9. 3. /. 5. 

An arctic species, and, like most of its genus, is only a winter visitant in these islands ; is easily 
domesticated. Little is known of its nidiheation, it having only once or twice bred in confinement. 
The trachea is like that of B. Brenta, but of rather smaller diameter. 



87 



BERNICLA JUBATA. 

Ber. Mas. — Capite cristato, colloque brumieis ; corpore cinereo, atro alboque maculato ; abdomine atro. 
Her. Fem. — Capite colloque brunneis albo sparsis ; corpore cinereo-bnmneo et albo maculato ; abdomine albo. 

HAWKSBURY BERNICLE. 



IN. IN. 



Length 23 Tarsi 2 

Bill 1 l-Gth Middle toe 2 l-Gth 

Male : ^vitli the head and upper part of the neck umber brown ; the feathers on the occiput 
much elongated and darker ; upper part of the back, -wing coverts, and lower part of the neck, 
cinerous, in the latter each feather having on its lateral edges a spot of black, and being tipped with 
white : lower part of the back, tail, abdomen, and belly in the centre, black ; quills brown ; ter- 
tiaries long, the largest cinereous, the smaller ones with the outer webs black with metallic green 
reflections ; wing spot metallic green, bordered anteriorly with a band of white, then with one of 
black posteriorly with one of white ; flanks white, beautifully barred and irrorated with narrow 
lines of black ; bill and legs black. 

Fem. : rather smaller than the male ; head and neck as in the male, but spotted anteriorly 
with small white specks ; a whitish line passes from the bill below the eye, and another above it ; 
breast and flanks white, each feather having a transverse bar of brown, narrowest in the centre, 
and expanding at the edges ; abdomen and vent white ; tail coverts cinereous ; remainder as in the 
male, with the exception of the bill, which is horn colour, 

Bernicla Jubata Steph. Sh. Zool. 12. 63. 

Anas Jubata Lath. Ind. On/. App. 69. 

Hawksbury Bemicle Lath. Syn. Sup. 2. 358. 

Inhabit* New South Wales, in the neighbourhood of the Hawksbury river; is said occasionally to 
perch in trees. 



\ 



\ 

Ber. Male, with the head crested, together with the neck brown ; body cinereous, spotted with ^ 

black and white ; abdomen black. 

Ber. Fem. with the head and neck brown blotched with white ; body cinereous, spotted with 
brown and white ; abdomen white. 



88 



CHEMSCUS MADAGASCARIENSIS. 

Tier. — Dorso colloquy macula viridi ; subtus albus. 

MADAGASCAR BERN I CLE. 
jBer. with the back and neck with a patch of green ; below white. 

IN. IN. 

Length U^ Middle toe 7-12ths 

Bill | 

Male : occiput, a stripe clown the back of the neck ; scapulars and rump green, with purplish 
inflections ; quills and primary coverts sooty black, the latter edged with white ; upper part of tbe 
breast, tail coverts, and flanks, reddish yellow ; lower part of the breast, belly, forehead, chin, 
cheeks, and front of the neck, white; an ovate patch on each side of the neck, ligbt green, with a 
black edge irrorated with white ; under tail coverts black ; bill gamboge yellow ; nail, legs, and 
feet, black. 

Fern. : as in the male, but without the green marking on the neck, instead of which it is grey ; 
the forehead is also grey ; in other respects similar. 

Anas Madagascar icns'is Gmel. S//s. .Vu/. I. 522. 

Lath. Ind. Om. 2. 875. 

Madagascar Teal Lath. Gen. S?/n. G. 556. 

Sarcelle de Madagascar Buff. PL Enl. 770. 

Inhabits Madagascar. Specimens are in the British Museum, and in that of the Zoological 
Society. Mr. Leadbeater also possesses two most beautiful specimens. We have also been so 
fortunate as to obtain a specimen of the female. 



89 



CHENISCUS COROMANDELIANUS. 

Ber. — Vertice, alis, dorso, caudaque, Eeneis-fuscis ; colloque striis nigricantibus strigato. 

COTTON BEENICLE. 
Ber. with the crown, wings, hack, and tail, hrassy brown ; neck streaked with black. 

IN. IN. IN 

Length 13± Bill 1 Tarsi 1 



! 



V 

IN. IN. IN. 



Ber. : crown black or brassy brown ; the remainder of the head and neck white ; a bar of 
metallic green across the breast ; wings and body brown or black, glossed with green ; beneath 
white, with the lateral under-tail coverts ferruginous ; legs black ; bill lead-coloured. 

The female differs from the male in the markings being less distinct, and being slightly smaller. 

Both sexes have occasionally the basal half of the quills white. 

Anas Coromandeliana Gmel. Sysl. Nat. 1. 522. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 875. 

Bernicla Coromandeliana Steph. Sh. Zool. 12. 56. 

Coromandel Teal Lath. Gen. Sijn. 6. 556. 

Sarcelle de Coromandel Buff. PI. Enl. 949-950. 

Bernicla Girra Gray Ind. Zool. 

Is found in Coromandel, Australia, and India. Specimens are in the museum of the Zoological 
Society, and in the British Museum. 

This bird, which is included in Col. Sykes's catalogue of birds found in the Deccan, 
contained in the " Proceedings of the Zoological Society," is said by that gentleman to be 
" monogamous : vegetable matter and gravel were found in the stomach. These birds, when 
wounded, dive, and on returning to the surface shew only the bill above water, keeping the body 
below at pleasure." It is called the " Cotton Teal" by the Europeans of the Deccan, from the 
quantity of white in the plumage. 



N 



90 



ANSER INDICUS. 

Arts. — Cinereus ; capite albo ; fascia lunati occipital] brunni •«. 

BAR-HEADED GOOSE. 
Cinereous goose ; with the head white ; a lunate fascia on the occiput brown. 



IN. IN- 



Length 27 Tarsi 3 

Bill If Middle toe 2| 

Light grey goose; with the head and neck white ; a brown lunule on the occiput and an 
irregular fascia a little below it, from which extends down the back of the neck a broad streak, 
both of the same colour as the lunule; anterior part of the neck brown grey, having a space of 
white down each side between it and the brown at the back ; centre tail feathers and quills brown ; 
lateral tail feathers, upper and under tail coverts, and under surface, yellowish white ; a brow n 
patch undulated with grey on each side above the thighs ; bill and legs orange. 

Anser Indica Steph. Sh. Zool. l -2. 36. 

Anas Indica Lath. I ml. Orn. 2.. 839. 

Bar-headed Goose Lath. Gen. Syn. Sup. 277 

A user Indica Gould. Cent. Birds. 

Found in most parts of India during the winter months. 



ANSER ERYTHROPUS. 

. Ins. — Cinereus ; macula alba basum rostri eingente. 

LAUGHING GOOSE. 

Cinereous goose ; with a white patch surrounding the base of the bill. 

IN. IN. 

Length 27 Tarsi 2\ 

Bill 2 Middle toe 2f 

Head, neck, chest, breast, and belly, grey brown, the latter marked with irregular patches and 



91 

I 

bars of black ; back brown, with each feather margined with lighter ; quills dark hoary brown ; 

vent, abdomen, and upper tail coverts white ; tail grey brown tipped with white ; the two outer 
tail feathers entirely white ; a white patch on each side the base of the bill. 

Anser Eri/tJirojjus Flem. Brit. An. 1"27. 

Anas Linn. Syst. 1. 197. 

Anser albifrons Steph. Sh. Zoo!. 12. 25. 

Laughing Goose Edw. Gle. pi. 158. 

White-fronted Goose Perm. Brit. ZooJ. 2. 575. ^ 

Perm. Arc/. Zoof. 2. 476. \ 

Lath. Syn. 6. 463. v 

L'Oie rieuse Buff. Ois. 9. 81. 

A regular winter resident in the British islands, and is found in the northern portion of the 
continents of Europe, Asia, and America. Specimens are in our collection, received from the 
Himalayan range and from within the arctic circle. Dr. Richardson, in the " Fauna Boreali 
Americana," informs us that its breeding places are in the woody districts skirting the Mackenzie, 
to the north of 67 parallel. 



ANSER SEGETUM. 

Ans. — Cinereus ; rostro nigro. fascia flava ad apicem. 

BEAN GOOSE. 
Cinereous goose ; the bill black, with a yellow fascia towards the tip. 

IN. IN. 

Length 30 Tarsi . . , 3| 

Head and neck, back, wings, tail, breast, abdomen, and flank, grey brown, each feather edged 
with lighter, and sometimes with white; vent, under tail coverts, and rump white; bill black with 
a band of yellow, in some specimens strongly tinged with pink, surrounding both mandibles near 
the extremity. 

. inter tegetum Steph. Sh. Zool. 12. 27. 

Anas tegetum , , , , Gmel. Syst. l . 5 1 2. 

Lath Tnd. Orn. 2. 843 



92 

Bean Goose Brit. Zool. 2. 575. 

Arct.Zool. 2.V. 172. 
L'Oie sauragc K"ff Ois. 9. 30. 

Visits the British isles regularly during winter. Easily domesticated, becoming tame very shortly 
after their capture ; but I am not aware that they have ever bred in this state, or does any thing 
appear to be known of their modification. 

Trachea and inferior larynx typical, the former slightly expanding above the latter part. 



ANSER HYPERBOREAS, 

Arts. — Albus ; remigibus atris. 

SNOW GOOSE. 
White goose ; with the quills black. 

IN. IN. IN. 

Length 31| Bill 2j Tarsi 2\ 



White, with the quills black ; the legs orange ; bill black. In the young state this bird has 
the wing coverts blue, and the remainder of the plumage more or less tinged with cinereous. The 
bill of this species gapes more at the sides than in any other of the genus. 

Anas hyperborea Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 . 504. 

Lath. I ml. Orn. 2. 837. 

Pall. Spic. vi. p. 26. 

Anscr niveus Briss. Orn. 6. 288. 

Oie hyperboree ou le neige Temtn. Man. d' Orn. 525. 

Cur. Re</. An. 1. 531. 
Anas ccrrulescens Linn. Syst. .Wit. 1. 198. 

Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 513. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 836. 
Oie des Esquimaux Buff. Hist. A'at. Ois. 9. 80. 

Met with in the northern parts of America and Europe. 



93 



ANSER MELANOPTERUS. 

Anser. — Albus ; rectricibus majoribus, tertiis. et secondares, atris. 

BLACK AND WHITE GOOSE. 
White goose ; with the greater quills, tertiaries, and secondaries, black. 

IN. IN. \ 

Length 28i Tarsi 3± v 

Bill l| Middletoe 3* 

White, with the greater quills and adjoining secondaries brown black, glossed with brassy ; 
a few of the tertiary coverts with a longitudinal stripe of brown on the shaft ; head and neck 
inclining to grey ; bill orange ; nail black ; legs orange. 

Anser melanopterus, nobis. 

Brought home by Capt. King, obtained from the lake of Titicaca, Chili. In the museum of 
the Zoological Society, We observed also specimens in the British Museum, and in that of Lord 
Derby, at Knowsley. 



ANSER FERUS. 

Ans. — Cinereus ; rostro aurantiaco. 

WILD GOOSE. 
Cinereous goose ; with the bill orange. 

IN. IN. 

Length 34 Bill 2f 

Head, neck, back, and wing coverts, grey brown, the former rather the lightest ; all tin 
feathers edged with light grey ; breast and belly dirty white, crossed by a stripe of grey; rump, 
vent, and under tail coverts white ; bill deep orange, with the nail white ; legs, tarsi, and feet red. 

Anser ferns Slej,h. Sh. Zool. 12. 28. 

Anas ferns (line/. Syet. 1 . 5 1 ( >. 

Lath. Tnd. Orn. 2. 841. 
Grey lag Goose Penn. Brit. Zool. 2. 570. 

Venn. drct. Zool. 2. 173. 

Lath. Syn. 6. 459. 
Oie cendree ou premiere Temm, Mian, Orn. 2. 818. 



94 

We have followed Mr. Stephens anil Mr. Gould in preserving to this species the name of ferus, 
and to one of the foregoing A. segetum, as being better known than those of Dr. Fleming used by 
Mr. Selby. The above bird arrives here in the winter in great numbers, and, according to Tcm- 
minck, the distribution of it is very wide, being over Europe, Nubia, and part of Western Africa, 
inhabiting lakes and marshes. 

Breeds in the north, and formerly reared its young in this country, laying about ten eggs of a 
white colour. 



ANSER GUINEENSIS. 

Ans. — Griseo-cinereus : subtus albus, tuberculo ad basin rostri, 

SWAN GOOSE. 

Griseous-cinereous goose; below white, with a tubercle at the base of the bill. 

Length 39 inches. 

Above cinereous grey, with the edges of the feathers light grey ; from the occiput down the 
back of the neck runs a dark brown streak to the back ; fore part of the neck, breast, and abdomen, 
dirty white ; bill (which has a large knob at its base) greenish white colour ; legs orange. 

The female is less than the male, and with the colours not so distinct ; the knob at the base 
of the bill is also smaller. 

Anser Guineensis lia/i Syn. 1 . 38. 

Briss. On>. 6. 280. 
Anser cygnoides Linn. Syst. 1. 194. 

Lath. Ltd. Orn. 2. 838. 

< Tiinese Goose Perm. Arct. Zool. 2. 571. 

Swan Goose Bewick lint. Birds, 2. 281 . 

L' O'te de Guinee Buff. Ois. 9. 72, ;//. 3. pi, Enl. 347. 

Said to inhabit (in a wild state) some parts of Siberia and Kamsehatka, and to have been originally 
brought to this country from Guinea, but are now to be found in a semi-domesticated state in most 
parts of Europe. 

This species crosses freely with the common tame goose, and their offspring are again productive. 

Trachea of large diameter, and very much in this part, as in its whole anatomy, resembling 
the true swans. The trachea descends between the rami of the os furcatum. and is joined to the 
point from whence they diverge by a strong ligament, as in the black swan. 



95 



ANSER HUTCHINSII. 

Ans. — Minusquam sequenti, sed .similis. 

HUTCHINS GOOSE. 
Goose similar to the following, but smaller. 

IN. IN. » 

Length 25 Tarsi 2| v 

Bill If Middle toe 3i 

Goose with the head, neck, rump, and tail, black ; back and wings brown, with the edges of 
the feathers lighter ; a small mark anterior to the eye, and a kidney-shaped patch on the throat, 
white ; below white, with the flank transversely barred with grey ; bill and feet black. 

Anser Hutchinsii , Faun. Bo. Am. 2 p. 270. 

Anas bernicla, Var. B Rich upp. Parry 2 Voy. 1. 368. 

A common species in Hudson's Bay and the arctic parts of America, where it has, until separated 
by Dr. Richardson, been confounded with the Canada goose, which it much reembles in every 
respect except in size. 



ANSER CANADENSIS. 

Anser. — Cinereus; capite oolloque superiore atris; genis guttureque macula alba. 

CANADA GOOSE. 

Cinereous goose; with the head and upper part of the neck black; the cheeks and throat 
\\ itli a white patch. 

IN. IS. 

Length 42 Tarsi 3^ 

Bill 2 l-Gth Middle toe A\ 

Goose with the head, upper half of the neck, epulis, tail, and rump, velvet black; back and 
wings brown, with the edges of each feather lighter; the lower part of the neck anteriorly and 
under .surface white, with a grey tinge at the root of the feathers; a large kidney-shaped patch on 
the throat and cheeks, with the small ends placed behind the eye, white; upper tail coverts also 
white ; bill and feet black. 

A»i>- i 'anadetuis Linn. 8yst. Nat, 1 . 198. 

. truer i 'anadensis Bonn/'. Syn. Bir. Am. 377. 

Aud. Orn. Biog. 3. 18. 

This Bpecies is easily kept to a semi-domesticated state, and breeds freely. In a wild state it 
breeds in the neighbourhood of Hudson's Bay. from whence they migrate southward over the 
American ( 'ontinent during winter. Lays about five eggs. 



96 



CYGNUS OLOR. 

Cyg. — Albus ; rostro aurantiaco, tubercula culmine ad basin podibusque atris. 

MUTE SWAN. 

Cyg. -white ; bill orange, with a knob on the culmen and feet black. 

Length 5 feet 6 inches. 

. i //as olor .• . Gmel. Syst. 1 . 50 1 . 

Anas cygnus mansuetus Linn. Syst. A'a/. 1. 194. 

Ran Sy/i. 133 A. 
Mute Swan Perm. Arc/. Zoo/. 2. 470. 

Lath. Gen. Sy/t. G. 136. 
Le Cygne Buff. Ols. 9. 3 PI. 1. 

Supposed to have been introduced into this country from Asia, and is said at present to exist 
in a wild state in Russia and Siberia ; now found commonly on large rivers and pieces of water, 
where it is half domesticated and breeds freely, laying six or seven eggs of a dirty white colour, or 
with a very slight tinge of greenish ; sits about six weeks. The trachea in this species does not 
enter the sternum, but has the tube of equal thickness for its whole length, being merely slightly 
contracted above the inferior larynx. 



CYGNUS IMMUTAB1LIS. 

Cyg. — Albus; rostro aurantiaco, tuberculaque culmine ad basin atro ; pedibus flavicantibus. 

POLISH SWAN. 

White swan ; with the bill orange, and a tubercle on the culmen at the base black ; the feet 
yellowish. 

Similar in size and in every other particular to the preceding, except in the eolouiing of the 
feet and legs, which are light drab colour. 

The young of this species are white from the eggs, and do not exhibit any of the grey or 
brown colouring found invariably among the others. 

( 'ygnus immutabilis Yarrell. 

For what we have said concerning this species Ave are altogether indebted to the Karl of Derby 



v . 



97 

and William Yarrell, Esq. We never have had an opportunity of minutely examining a specimen 
for ourselves. Several specimens have heen killed this winter (1837-8) hoth in Scotland and 
England, from flocks varying in number from seven to thirty. 

Mr. Yarrell also informs us, that hitherto he was only acquainted with the bird as an article 
of commerce among the London dealers in live birds, who distinguished it by the name of the 
Polish Swan. 



CYGNUS ATRATUS. 

Oyg. — Niger, cinereo undulato. 

BLACK SWAN. 



Longth 4 2 Outer toe 4| 

Tarsi 4^ Inner toe 3| 

Centre toe ... . 5 Hind toe | 



Black, with the edges of the feathers cinereous ; quills, secondaries, and greater coverts white 
tipped with black ; bill carmine red, marked transversely near the tip with a white band ; nail 
white ; legs and feet dark yellowish ash, with the webs darkest. 

Anas atrata Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 834. 

Anas plutonia Shaw, JVat. Misc. pi. 108. 

Oygnus atratus Stcph. Sh. Zoo/. 12. 18. 

Black Swan Lath. Gen. Syn. Sup. 2. 343. 

Le Cygne noir , Cue. Reg. An. 1 . 529. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, vol. L5, tab. 12. 

Entirely an Australian species. The tube of the trachea does not enter the sternum, but is 
attached to the os furcatum by a ligament; in other respects the anatomy resembles that of the 

tnii' swans 



/u 



98 



CYGNUS NIGRICOLLIS. 

( 'ijg. — Albus ; capite colloque atris. 

BLACK-NECKED SWAN. 
White swan ; with the head and neck black. 

rr. in. in. 

Length 4 2 Bill 3f 

White swan ; with the head and neck black; hill black, with two knobs at the base; legs 

orange. 

Anas nigricollis Gntcl. Syst. Nat. 1 . 51 12. 

Lath. Ind. On/. 2. 834. 

Anas melanocephalus Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 . 502. 

Cygnus nigricollis Steph. Sh. Zool. 12. 1 7. 

Anas melancorypha Moll. French edit. 213. 

Inhabits the Falkland Isles and the Straits of Magellan. 



CYGNUS BEWICK! I. 

Cyg. — Albus: rostro atro, baso usque ad nares aurantiaco. 

BEWICK'S SWAN. 
White swan ; with the hill black, the base orange to the nostrils. 

FT. IN. IN. 

Length - 3 101 ram 4^ 

Bill 3| Middle toe 5 

White; with the bill black, the basal half yellow, the yellow marking truncated at the ex- 
tremity ; legs and toes black. 

Cygnus Bemickii, and trachea Yiarr. Linn. Trans, vol. 1". 

Eyton, Hist. R. Brit. Birds, p. 86. 

Discovered by Mr. Yarrell and Mr. R. Wingate to be an inhabitant of the British isles. 

The trachea of this species during youth penetrates the keel of the sternum in a similar manner 
to that of C. ferns, but may always be distinguished by the greater length of the bronchia-. A 
the bird approaches maturity the tube at the internal extremity of the portion penetrating the 
sternum takes a horizontal twist, increasing in size and the depth to which it penetrates with age. 

The tube of the trachea is acted upon by two pairs of muscles, the first pair sterno-t radical, 
the other having their attachment on the membrane stretched between the rami of the os fit real tun 
and the sternum. ( Vide Jig. ) 







,4% 






-. 
■- - 

g ^ 

S 

=3 



99 



CYGNUS AMERICANUS. 

Cyg. — Cygno Bewickii similis, seel majore. 



AMERICAN SWAN. 



Swan like Cygiius Bewickii, but larger. 



Length . . . 
Ext. Alee. 
Bill 



4 
7 



1 



4 



Tarsi 4 

Outer toe 5| 

Middle toe ... . 6 



The only specimen of this bird we have seen was shewn to us by Mr. Audubon ; it appeared 
to have the bill more expanded towards the tip than is the case in Cygnus Bewickii, and altogether 
to be of larger size. The Prince of Musignano assures us that he is quite satisfied as to its distinct- 
ness from C. Bewickii. 



Cygnus Americanus Sharpless in Silliman's Journal. 

Trachea Ditto ditto. 

Cygnus Bewickii Faun. Bo. Am. 1. 465. 

Inhabits North America. 

The following is an extract from Dr. Sharpless's paper above quoted. We must not, how- 
ever, forget to mention that the tracheal anatomy of this species is so very similar to that of 
C. Bewickii, that Dr. Sharpless has copied the illustrations of Mr. Yarreii's paper on that species, 
published in the Linntean Transactions, to illustrate his on C. Americanus. 

Specific Char. Beak black and semi-cylindrical; sides of the base with a small orange or 
yellow spot ; body white ; tail feathers twenty ; feet black. 

Weight 

Point of bill to the end of tail .... 

edge of forehead 

eye 

occiput 

Width of the beak at the widest part near the point 

with wings extended 

Carpus to the end of primaries .... 

Length of middle toe 

intestine 

breast bone 



Depth of insertion of trachea 
Length of bronchial tubes 
Tail leathers in number 



Hooper. 


Bewick. 


American. 


24 lbs. .. 


13|lbs. . 


. 21 lbs. 


5ft. 


3ft, 9in. . 


. 4ft. 6in. 


4^in. 


3iin. 


. 4lin. 


5[in. .. 


4^in 


5in. 


7|in. . . 


Glin. 


. 7iin. 

J Uin. 
Jl|in. 


7ft. lOin. . 


6ft. lin. . 


. 7ft. 2in. 


2ft. ljin. . 


1ft. Rlin. . 


. 1ft. llin. 


G!in. . 


5jin. 


(iin. 


12ft. 


10ft. 2in. . 


. 10ft. 7in. 


Hlin. .. 


6§in. 


. 71in. 


3in. 


Oj'in. 


. 6Jin. 


3Jin. .. 


Uin. 


. 1 lin. 


20 


18 


. 20 



100 



It is not improbable, as Mr. Yarrell .suggests, that this species and C. Buccinator will be 
found to be confined to America ; C. Beivickii and C. ferns representing them in Europe. 

Dr. Richardson, in the " Fauna Boreali Americana," says that " this swan breeds on the sea 
coast within the arctic circle, and is seen in the fur countries on its passage only. It makes its 
appearance among the latest of the migratory birds in the spring, while the Trumpeter swans air, 
with the exception of the eagles, the earliest. Capt. Lyon describes its nest as built of moss peat, 
nearly six feet long, four feet and three cpiarters wide, and two feet high exteriorly ; the cavity a 
foot and half in diameter, the eggs brownish white slightly coloured with darker tints." 



CYGNUS BUCCINATOR. 

Cyg. — Albus ; rostro atro. 

TRUMPETER SWAN. 
White swan ; with the bill black. 

IN. IN. 

Length 42 Tarsi 3^ 

Bill 21 Middle toe 4| 

Cygnus Buccinator Faun. Bo. Am. 2. 464, 

Trachea and sternum Linn. Trans, vol. xvii. p. 1, T. I. 

Dr. Richardson informs us, in the "Fauna Boreali Americana," that "this is the most common 
of the genus in the interior of the fur countries. It breeds as far south as lat. 61, but principally 
within the arctic circle, and in its migrations generally precedes the geese a few days. A fold of its 
trachea enters a protuberance on the dorsal or interior aspect of the sternum at its upper part, which 
is wanting in C. ferns and C. Bewickii." It is to the Trumpeter that the bulk of the swan skins 
imported from Hudson's Bay belong. 



10] 



CYGNUS ANATOIDES. 

Oyg. — Albus : remigibus priruariis. ad apicem nigris ; rostro pediblisque rubris, illo lato. subdepresso, 
tuberculo nullo. (King.) 

DUCK-LIKE SWAN. 

White swan ; with the primaries black at the apices ; bill and feet red, the former broad, sub- 
depressed, without a tubercle. 

IN. IN. 

Length 42 Tarsi 3^ 

Bill 2| Middle toe 4^ 

Cygnus anatokles. King Zool. Proc. Dec. 14, 1830. 

Habitat in sinubus interioribus apud extremitatis meridionalem America. (King. 

I am informed by C. Darwin, Esq. that he observed this swan in company with C. nigricolUs 

in the Straits of Magellan. The bill in this species is broader in proportion to its length than La 
usual amongst the swans. 



CYGNUS FERUS. 

'''/// — Albus: rostro atro, baso ultra nares aurantiaco. 

HOOPER. 

White swan : with the bill black, the base orange to beyond the nostrils. 

IN. 1N- 

Lemjth 60 Tarsi 4 

Bill Ai Middle toe 6| 

White ; with an occasional tinge of buff colour ; bill black, cere yellow, and is carried to a 
point before the nostrils on the edge of the upper mandible; legs and feet black. 

' 'iii/iiiis ferns ■/?<"'* Syi. 1 3i i . / 

Anat i 'ygnuaferus Linn. Syst. 1. 194. 

Gmel. Syst. 1.501. 

Lath. Iml. Orn. '-'. 833 

WTiistlmg Swan Perm. Arct. Zool. 2. 833. 

Trachea Linn. Tn k, tab. l %,f$ 



102 

A winter visitant in the British isles, particularly during hard weather ; its true habitation, 
however, is within the arctic circle. In Iceland it also occasionally breeds. 

Lives well and is prolific on large pieces of water in a semi-domesticated state, sitting six 
weeks, and laying from four to six eggs of a greenish colour. 

The trachea in this species perforates the keel of the sternum deeply in a vertical direction. 



SARKIDIORNIS REGIUS. 

Sar. — Supra niger-aeneus, subtus albus : mas. caruncula magna culmine rostri. 

BLACK-BACKED GOOSE. 

Goose with the upper part brassy-black ; below white ; the male with a large caruncle at the 
base of the bill. 



IN. 



Male : Length 30 Tarsi 2f 

Bill 2| Middle toe 3| 

Bill black, with a large caruncle on the culmen ; head and neck white, spotted with 
metallic green ; under parts white, and wings purplish black, glossed in some lights with brassy, 
a band of black extending from the back to the posterior part of the thighs ; wings with a knob ; 
lower part of the back white ; tail coverts black. 

Fem. : Length 27 inches Bill 2 inches 

Bill without the caruncle, colouring similar, but with the white more or less tinged with 
brown, and without the band of black behind the thighs ; bill and legs in both black. 

Anas regia Chnel. Si/st. Nat. 1 . 508. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 817. 

Moll. Hist, du Chili, jf. 212. 

Carina Steph. in the Zoo), vol. 12, 82. 

Anas melanotus Chnel. Syet. A at. 1 . 503. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 839. 

L' Oie bronzee d' Coromandel B"ff- Hist. Nat. dee Ota. pi. 937. 

Black-backed Goose Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 149. 

Lc cravant royal Veil. En. Method. Orn. vol. 1 . 126. 

U Oie bronzee Buff. Ois. 1 15. 

Found in Cayenne and most parts of India ; is also included in the list of birds of the Deccan, 
by Col. Sykes, who also says that seeds of water grasses, and the remarkable cpiadrangular hard 
seeds met with in the stomach of Pterocles exustus, were also found in the stomach of this bird. 
Col. Sykes found the digastric muscle of the remarkable thickness of 1 1 -5th inch. 



103 



SARKIDIORNJS AFR1CANUS. 

Sar. — Minusquam precedent!, sed in colore similis. 

AFRICAN BLACK-BACKED GOOSE. 

Less than the preceding, but in colour similar. 



IN. 



Male : Length 23 Tarsi 2 

Bill 2 Middle toe 2| 

Fein. : Length 21 Tarsi 1| 

Bill If Middle toe 2 a 

Both sexes resemble perfectly in colouring the preceding species, except in admeasurement, in 
which they differ considerably. ^Ye have never seen a specimen with the caruncle, our specimen 
having evidently had it cut off, probably from the difficulty of preserving it. 

Sarkidiornis Africanus t/ohia. 

The four specimens in our collection were received from the Gamba river. Specimens have 
also been brought home by Dr» Smith from Southern Africa, who will in his forthcoming work 
publish a figure of this species. 



CHENALOPEX ^GYPTIACA. 

Chen. — Dorso castaneo; subtus leviter flavo-ferrugineo, sparsus lineatusque brunnco. 

EGYPTIAN CHENALOPEX. 

With the back castaneous ; below slightly tinged with ferruginous yellow, sprinkled and line- 
ated with brown. 

IN. IN. 

Length 27| Tarsi 3 

Bill 21 Middle toe 3 

Male: head and neck hoary, witli the occiput and a stripe down the back of the neck 
approaching to ferruginous ; a patch round the eyes and ring round the lower part of the neck deep 
ineoufi • upper part of the back, scapulars, tertiaries, and a triangular patch on the breast, also 
castaneous, some of the feathers in the former heing irrorated with black; the inner webs also 
of BOme of the tertiaries hoary grey. The whole of the remainder of the breast and under surface i* 
lighl yellow ferruginous irrorated with brown, except the abdomen, which is pure white; vent 
ferruginous; lower part of the back, tail, quills, and spurious wing, black ; secondaries bright 
metallic green, forming the wing spot; wing coverts white, the greater ones with a liar of hlaek 
near the tips ; bill and legs oranj 



104 

Female: with the chesnut patches round the eyes and on the breast smaller. 

Anas JEgyptiaca Linn. Syst. 1 . 1 97. 

Gmel. Syst. 1 . 512. 
Briss. Orn. 6. 284.pl 25 
Lath. hid. Orn 2. 840 

t 'henalopex JEgyptiaca Steph. Sh. Zool. 12. 13. 

L' Oie d' JSgypte Buff. PI En. 379, 982, 983 

Egyptian Goose Lath. Syn. 6. 155. 

Inhabits most parts of Africa, especially Egypt and the Cape of Good Hope. We have figured 

the trachea and skeleton of this bird in illustration of the genus. 



CHENALOPEX C ANA. 

Che. — Mas. castaneus capite albo; occipite colloque canis. 
Che. — Fern. Mari similis set! capite oinnino cano. 

GREY-HE ADED SPURWING. 

IN'. IN. 

Length 25 Tarsi 2], 

Bill If Middle toe 2[. 

Male: castaneous chenalopex, with the whole of the head excepting the crown white ; neck 
and crown grey; wing coverts white; secondaries with the outer webs green; quills, tail, and vent 
hoary brown, the latter with a black band ; bill and legs black; the bend of the wing armed with 
a spur. 

Female : similar to the male, but with the whole of the bead hoary. 

Ana • I 'ana Gmel Syst. 1 . 51 0. 

Lath. I)i,l. Orn. 2. 840 

Bernicla < 'ana Steph. Sh. Zool. 1 2. 6 1 . 

Grey-headed Goose Lath. Syn. 6. 458. 

L' Oic sawoage a tete grise de Coromandel Sonn Voy. 2.220. 

The above descriptions were taken from two specimens brought borne b\ Dr. Smith, and 
exhibited in the South African museum, having been obtained in the neighbourhood of the Cape. 
It lias, however, been introduced alive into this country, and kept in confinement both by Lord 
Derby at Knowsley and in the gardens of the Zoological Society. Specimens are in the museum 
of that society. 



t 






105 



TADORNA BELLONII. 

Tad. — Albus ; capite colloque atris ; rostro cruribusque rubris. 

COMMON SHELDRAKE, 
White sheldrake ; with the head and neck hlack ; the hill and legs red, 

IN. IN. 

Length 23± Tarsi . ., 2 

Bill 2 Middle toe 2± 

Head and upper part of the neck black, glossed -with green ; fore part of the wings, back, 
tail, abdomen, and tail coverts, white ; tail feathers tipped with black ; a line down the middle of 
the abdomen black ; upper part of the back and band across the breast deep ferruginous ; quills 
black ; wing spot green ; bill and legs reddish orange, the latter in some specimens inclining to 
flesh colour. 

Anas Tadorna Linn. Si/st. *\'at. 1. 195-4. 

Bail Syn. 140 A. 1. 

Tadorna vulpanser Flem. Brit. An. 1. 122. 

Lc Tadorne Buff. Ois. 9. 205. 

Canard Tadorne Temm. Man. 

Tadorna vidpanser Selb. Llhist. Brit. Orn. 11. 289. ' 

Gould, Birds of Europe. 

Tadorna Bellonii Steph. Sh. Zool. 12. 72. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, vol. iv. tab. 15, Jiff. 9, 10. 

Found over nearly the whole of Europe and some parts of Asia and America ; lays twelve 
eggs of a whitish colour, generally in rabbit holes ; frequents the sea. Trachea of male slightly 
enlarged about an inch and half above the inferior larynx, and again contracted immediately above 
it, as among the Anserince. The inferior larynx is furnished with two large compressed bidbs, 
the one on the right side being nearly double the size of that on the left ; but neither are of such 
strength as in those species of the last family which possess that adjunct. 



10G 



TADORNA RADJAH. 

Tad. — Capite, collo, ventre, ptilisque albis : eollo inferiore lato eastaneo cingulo ornato, sparso atro. 

RADJAH SHELDRAKE. 

Head, neck, belly, and anterior part of the wing white ; the lower part of the neck surrounded 
by a band of deep castaneous irrorated with black. 

Length 22± Bill If Tarsi 2 

Head, neck, belly, and anterior part of the wing white ; lower part of the neck surrounded by 
a collar of deep castaneous, thickly and beautifully irrorated with black ; wing spot bright green, 
anterior to which there is a white stripe, then a very narrow one of black, posteriorly a narrow 
black stripe followed by one of white ; scapulars dark sienna brown irrorated with black ; tertiaries 
with the outer webs sienna brown ; inner webs, epulis, tail, back, and under tail coverts, black ; 
vent black irrorated with white ; bill and legs orange. 

Anas Radjah Diiperrey, Voy. de la CoquUle,pl. 49. 

Specimens are in most museums, received from Australia, but from what part we cannot say. 
Although we have examined many specimens, no sexual difference has been observed. 



CASARKA RUTILA. 

Cos. — Ferruginea ; cauda reniigesque primariis atris ; speculo virkli. 

FERRUGINOUS SHELDRAKE. 

Ferruginous sheldrake ; with the tail and quills black ; the wing spot green. 

IN. IN. 

Length 24| Bill 1| Tarsi 



Ruddy ferruginous, with the head and anterior part of the wing lighter, sometimes nearly 
white ; tail and lower part of the back black glossed with green ; quills black ; secondaries bright 
glossy green, with the inner webs hoary ; bill and legs black ; sometimes a black ring round the 
neck is visible. 



V 



107 



Casarka rutila Bonap. Cat. Am. and Europ. Birds. 

Anas Casarka Lain. Syst. 3 App. 224. 

Anas rutila Pall. Nov. Com. Petrop. 14. 579. 

Tadorna rutila Steph. Sh. ZooL 12. 71. 

Selb. I/lust. Brit. Orn. 2. 293. 

Canard Casarka Temm. Man. Orn. 2. 832. 

Ruddy Sheldrake Gould, Birds of Europe. 

Ferruginous Duck Ben. Brit. Birds, 2. 313. 

Ruddy Goose Lath. Syn. 6. 456. 

Met with occasionally in most parts of the European continent, India, and Africa ; lays eight 
■white eggs ; frequents chiefly fresh water. Col. Sykes found these hirds for the most part of the 
year in pairs in the Deccan ; but on the Nerbudda river, in Guzerat, he has seen them congregated 
in hundreds in April. Col. Sykes found the stomachs of many of them filled with grass seeds and 
vegetable matter only. 



CASARKA TADONOIDES. 



Cas. — Capite, cauda, vertreque atris, hoc castaneo sparso ; cingulo albo collo. 



NEW HOLLAND SHELDRAKE. 



Sheldrake, with the head, tail, back, and belly black, the latter irrorated with castaneous ; a 
white ring round the neck. 



Length , 



IN. 

27 



Bill. 



IN. 

12 



Tarsi . 



IN. 

2 



Head, back, belly, and tail black ; the back and belly irrorated with ferruginous ; the lower 
part of the back and tail slightly tinged with green ; upper part of the back, breast, and outer webs 
of the tertiaries ferruginous ; a white collar round the neck ; fore part of the wing white ; wing 
spot light green ; quills black ; legs and bill black. In the female a white band surrounds the 
base of the bill, from which another passes through the eye. 



Anas Tadonoides , 
Inhabits New Holland. 



Jard. Sf Selb. Illus. Orn. pi. 411. 



108 



CAS ARK A CASTANEA. 

Cos. — Castanea; capite colloque albo. 

CASTANEOUS SHELDRAKE. 

Castaueous sheldrake ; with the head and neck white. 

IN. IN. 

Length 29 Tarsi 21 

Bill 21 Middle toe 21 

Sheldrake, with the body below castaneous ; the head, neck, and greater wing coverts white ; 
the back, rump, and tail brown, the former speckled with white ; tertiaries with the external webs 
castaneous ; the internal ones and some of the secondary coverts blueish grey ; bill black ; legs 
crimson. 

Casarka castanea nobis. 

Purchased from Mr. Leadbeater, who received it from New Holland. 



DENDROCYGNA ARCUATA. 

Dend. — Fusca ; marginibus pennarum vinaceis, subtus castanea ; vertice brunnco. 

ARCUATED WHISTLING DUCK. 
Fuscous duck ; with the margins of the feathers vinaceous, below castaneous ; the head brown. 

IN. IN. 

Length 19 7am If 

Bill | Middle toe 2| 

Duck, with the head and neck whitish, slightly tinged with yellow vinaceous ; crown brown ; 
back hoary fuscous, the edges of each feather vinaceous, forming arcuated lines ; Ming and upper 
tail coverts deep chesnut ; below ferruginous ; under tail coverts white ; quills and tail black ; bill 
and feet also black. 

Female smaller, and the colours less distinct. 

Anas arctiata , Ilors. Zool. Res. Java. 

Anas Javanica . . . , , Hors. Arrang. of the Birds of Java .• Linn. 

Trans, vol. xiii. />. 199. 
Mareca Amuree ,. , , , , , , Syhes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 168. 



* 








ss 



*3 
1 

S 



1 



109 

Found by Dr. Horsfield in Java, and by Col. Sykes in the Deccan. It appears to be gene- 
rally dispersed over India. Col. Sykes, in bis Synopsis, says it is " gregarious, and abundant in 
the Deccan. Sexes alike in plumage," " These birds are characterised by a very peculiar whistle 
when disturbed, by a proportionate length of the intestine (one-third shorter than any other species 
of the Anatidee), and by the inferior larynx being dilated into two oblong chambers, placed rather 
in front of, than lateral to, the trachea." 



DENDROCYGNA AUTUMNALIS. 

Vend. — Fusca ; vertreatro; rostro pedibusque rubris. 

AUTUMNAL WHISTLING DUCK. 
Fuscous ; with the belly black ; bill and legs red. 

IN. IN- 

Length 24 Tarsi 2 

Bill 2 Middle toe 2| 

Back, crown, head, collar on the neck, and tertiary coverts, vinaceous ; streak down the back 
of the neck black fuscous ; throat, cheeks, and upper part of the breast grey, inclining to vinaceous 
on the former ; secondaries, top of the primaries, tail, belly, aad lower part of the back black ; 
under tail coverts barred with black and dirty white ; base of the primaries and some of the primary 
coverts white. 

Anas AutumnaYis Linn. Syst. 1 . 205. 

Gmel.Syst. 1. 537. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 852. 
Red-billed Whistling Duck Edic. Glca. pi. 194. 

Lath. Gen. Sijn. 6. 498. 
Siffleur a bcc rouge et narines jaune B»ff- IS - 9. 183. 

Inhabits the West Indian Isles ; is common also in South America. We have received it from 
Peru, where it is not uncommonly kept tame as in this country. 



110 



DENDROCYGNA VIDUATA. 

Bend. Mas. — Capite anteriore guttureque albis ; subtus atro. 
Bend. Fem. — Man similis, sed obscurior. 

WIDOW WHISTLING DUCK. 

Male cluck, with the fore part of the head and throat white ; below black. 
Fem. duck, similar, but with the marking not so bright. 

IN. IN. IN. 

Length 20 Bill 1| Tarsi If 

Fore part of the head and throat whitish ; crown white, with the tip of the feathers stiff like 
hair, and olive brown ; occiput and hind neck black ; upper part of the neck and breast dark 
chesnut ; back fuscous olive, the edge of each feather lighter ; smaller wing coverts chesnut ; quills 
and secondaries black ; remainder of the wing fuscous, with a tinge of green ; tail, middle of the 
abdomen, and thighs black ; flanks yellowish white barred with black ; legs and bill black. 

Female similar, but with the colours not so bright. 

Anas viduata Linn. S//st. 1 . 205. 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 536. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 858. 

Spanish Buck Penn. Genera of Birds, pi. 13. 

Canard a face blanc de Maragnon Buff. Ois. 9. 255. 

Inhabits both South America and Senegal. Is represented by travellers as having, like the rest of 
its genus, a peculiar whistling note. 



DENDROCYGNA ARBOREA. 

Bend. — Brunnea albo maculato ; vertice nigro. 

BLACK-BILLED WHISTLING DUCK. 

Brown duck, mottled with white ; the crown black. 

™. IN. 

Length 191 Middle toe 3 

Bill 21 Outer toe 2 3-5ths 

Tarsi 3 Hind toe 1 

Inner toe 2 l-5th 

Crown black ; fore part of the head, back, breast, and wings, dark brown ; lighter on the 






Ill 

edges of the feathers ; breast and neck dirty white, at the lower part slightly spotted with black 
and brown ; a streak down the back of the neck dark brown ; under surface white, each feather 
barred with black and brown ; thighs the same ; tail and lower part of the back black ; bill lead- 
coloured ; legs and feet black. 

Alias Arborca Linn. Syst. Nat. 1. 207. 

Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1. 540. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 852. 

Anasjistularis Jamakensis Rail Syn. 192. 

Black-billed Whistling Duck Edw. Glca. pi. 193. 

Canard Sffleu?- de St. Dominique Buf. Ois. 804. 

Inhabits the West Indies and the adjacent portions of America. 



LEPTOTARSIS EYTONI. 

Lep. — Brunneus ; lateribus axUlaribusque ferrugineis. 

BROWN SLENDERLEGS. 

Brown duck, with the flanks and axillaries ferruginous. 

IN. IK. 

Length 21 Tarsi 2 l-5th 

Bill 1± Middle toe 21 

Duck, with the wings, back, and scapulars vandyke brown, inclining to slaty blue on the 
upper part of the back ; flanks posteriorly bright ferruginous buff, ornamented with very long 
axillary feathers, each of which are edged with black, and entirely covered when the wing is closed ; 
tail coverts also buff; the flanks anteriorly and under wing coverts bright ferruginous, the former 
beautifully barred with black ; crown and streak down the back of the neck sienna brown, the 
feathers on the former rather stiff ; below lutcous, inclining to dirty lemon colour; the chin and 
throat lighter ; two-thirds of the bill towards the base black ; the remainder, with the legs, ap- 
proaching to orange yellow. 

Leptotarsis Eytoni Gould. MSS. 

This beautiful and unicpie bird, which Mr. Gould has done us the honour to call by our name, 
is in the possession of the Zoological Society, and was received from Australia. 



112 



DAFILA UROPHASIANUS. 

Daf. Mas. — Cauda pallide run's; dorso, capite, colloque brunneis, marginibus pennarum saturatioribus. 
Daf. Fem. — Mare similis, sed subtus fuscus. 

PINTAIL. 

Pintail, with the tail pale rufous ; the back, head, and neck brown ; with the edges of the 
feathers lighter. 

Fem. like the male, but below fuscous. 

IN. IN. IN. 

Length 2\\ Bill 2 Tarsi If 

Male : with the head, neck, and body grey brown ; the edges of the feathers light fuscous ; 
cheeks, throat, and upper part of the fore neck, white ; wing coverts fuscous ; speculum bright 
green, anterior to which there is a stripe of pale red-fuscous ; posteriorly a narrow one of black, 
then a broad one of pale reddish fuscous ; tail and upper tail coverts pale reddish ; bill and legs 
fuscous, the former with an orange patch on each side, 

Female : similar to the male, but much smaller ; and below brownish fuscous. 

Anas urqphasumzu, King Zool. Jour. 4. 351 . 

Although some difference exists in length between our specimens of this bird and that 
described by Capt. King as above, and also a trifling one in colouring, we have been induced to 
place them as one, both having been received from the west coast of South America, placing ours 
the smallest as the female. Mr. Vigors, however, makes no mention of the orange marking on 
each side of the bill, which we suspect to be only apparent in old birds during the season of love. 
The buff colour on the wing also changes to white during certain times of the year in all the 
Pintails. 



V 



J 




I 



1 



I' 



113 



DAFILA PYROGASTER. 

Daf. — Subtus alba, singulis pennis marginatis apices versus lunulis brunneis. 

BROWN-BELLIED PINTAIL. 

Pintail ; below white, with each feather edged near its tip with a lunule of bright brown. 

IN. IN. 

Length 2-4 Inner toe 1 1 

Bill 1 4-5ths Middle toe . . . . 21 

Tarsi 2 Outer toe 2 

Under parts, breast, and upper part of the back dirty white, each feather having near its tip 
a lunule of brown, brighter on the breast and shaded off at the edges ; tail black ; Aving coverts 
brown ; wing spot brassy purplish, edged posteriorly with brassy green, and then with a broad 
band of white, formed by the secondaries ; neck dirty white, slightly spotted with brown and black ; 
head slightly crested ; crown and crest brown ; bill lead coloured ; legs black. 

Anas pyrogaster , Meyen Nova acta. 

In the museum of the Zoological Society, and in Lord Derby's collection. Inhabits Chili. 



DAFILA CAUDACUTA. 

Daf. Mas. — Capite colloque anteriore brunneis; posterioriter atro, albo raarginato. 
Da/. Tern. — Brunnea, marginibus pennarum suturatioribus ; speculo flavo-rufo. 

PINTAIL. 

Male pintail, with the head and upper part of the neck brown ; the posterior part black 
bordered with white. 

Eem. brown, with the edges of the feathers lighter; wing spot buff. 

IN. IN. IS - 

Length 24 Bill 2 Tarsi If 

Male: crown, throat, cheeks, and upper part of the neck, brown, with purple inflections; 
back part of the neck black, bordered on each side with white ; fore neck and below white | Bpe- 
culum green, bordered above with buff, below with white ; scapulars black, with light Imfl 

Q 



114 

edges; back and flanks white, undulated with lines of black ; middle tail feathers elongated grej 

black ; bill lead coloured ; feet and tarsi reddish ; eyes brown. 

Fein. : smaller than the male ; brown, with the edge of the feathers light ; lower parts lighter ; 
scapulars buff, margined above with lighter, below with white; middle tail feathers slightly elon- 
gated. During the summer months the male assumes nearly the plumage of the female, being 
ferruginous below. 



•&* 



Anas caitdacuta "Ran Syn. 147. A 5. 

Dafi/a caudacuta Steph. Sh. Zool. 1 2. 1 27. 

Anas acuta Linn. Si/st. 1 . 202. 

Gmel. Syst. 1 . 528. 

Jl'ils. Am. Orn. 8. ''i. 

Querquedula acuta Selb. TUust. lint. Orn. ml. Li. 311. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, vol. 1. tali. 1 3, Ji : /. a. 

A very widely distributed species, being found over Asia, Europe, America, and the north of 
Africa as far as the Gamba, from whence we have received them in the summer state of plumage. 
Breeds in Holland and Germany in morasses, building its nest of flags and grass, and laying eight 
eggs of a greenish blue colour. 

Trachea with the tube of equal diameter to one-third of its length infcriorly. where it is slightly 
expanded, and again contracted above the inferior larynx, which is (except in size) similar to that 
of A. Bosckas. 



DAFILA MARMORATA. 

Daf. — Toto corpora marmorato obscuro et subfusco. 

MARBLED DUCK. 
Duck, with the whole body marbled with dark and light brown. 



Length 18 

Bill 1 t-5ths 

Tarsi IS 





IN. 




.. i* 


Middle toe 


.. n 




.. if 



The whole body beautifully marbled with light sepia brown and dusky white; the edges of 
the feathers white, the base bright brown except those on the breast, which have the base lighter ; 
head slightly crested ; the forehead, crown, and occiput light brown, the former barred with black ; 
neck white, with minute longitudinal black dashes ; tail ashy brown, the tip of each feather lighter ; 
bill and legs deep lead colour. 



115 



FuKffula marmorata Gould, Birds of Europe. 

Anas marmorata Temtn. 

Sexes not known, or the same in plumage. 

Inhabits southern Europe and the adjoining portions of Asia ; it is, however, rare. We suspect 
the male has not yet been discovered. 



PJECILONITTA ERYTHRORHYNCHA. 

Pac. — Cinereo bnmnea, jugulo genisque albis ; rostro coecineo. 



RED-BILLED MARBLED DUCK. 
Cinereous brown duck, with the throat and cheeks white ; the bill red. 



Length 
Bill . . 



IN. 

2 



Tarsi 

Middle toe ..... . 2 



IN. 

H 



Slaty brown duck, with the bill red ; at first sight very similar to P. Bahamensis — the white 
markings on the throat and cheeks are, however, more extensive, and the bird altogether rather 
larger ; the tertiaries and scapulars, instead of being elongate as in Bahamensis, are broad and 
short ; the tail has all the feathers of equal length ; the wing spot is white, bounded posteriorly 
with buff. 

Anas erythrorhyncha Gmel. Syst. 1 . 517. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 855. 
Crimson-billed Duck Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 507. 

Brought home from the Cape of Good Hope by Dr. Smith, to whom we are indebted for 
permission to take the above description. 



116 



PJECILONITTA BAHAMENSIS. 

Pa-c. — Gutture albo ; speculo violaceo utrinque subflavo marginato; rostro duabus coccineia maculis lateribus. 

BAHAMA MARBLED DUCK. 

Throat white ; wing spot metallic violet, bounded on each side by a streak of buff ; the bill 
with two red markings on the sides. 

IN. IN. 

Length 18i Tarsi 1 \ 

Bill If Middle toe ... . If 

Bill lead coloured, lighter on the sides ; tail and back brown, edged with lighter ; crown 
immaculate sepia brown ; breast grey, spotted with brown ; wing spot metallic violet, bounded 
anteriorly with a narrow stripe of buff, posteriorly with a broad one ; legs and bill fuscous, the 
latter with a triangular patch of red on each side behind the nostrils. 

Sexes similar. 

In the young bird the bill is reddish brown. 

jlnas Bahamensis Linn. Syst. 1 . 1 99. 

Gmel Syst. 1. 516. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 835. 
Ilatlicra Duck , Catesb. Carol. 1 . pi. 63. 

Perm. Arct. Zoul. I.pl. 95. 

Lath. Gen. Si/n. 6. 507. 

Mareca BaJtamensis &tej)h. Sit. Zool. 12. 137. 

Le Marec , . . . . Buff. 

Inhabits Brazil and the Bahamas. 



MARECA AMERICANA. 

Mar. Mas. — Speculo viridi, utrinque atro marginato, et fascia lata viridi post occulari. 
Mar. Fern. — Brunnea, marginibus pennarum suturatioribus. 

AMERICAN WIDGEON. 

Mas. speculum metallic green, broadly bounded on each side by black ; a broad fascia of green 
behind the eye. 

Fem. brown, the edges of each feather lighter. 

IK. IN. IN. 

Length 23 Bill If Tarsi 1 1 




I 

•5 



, 



117 



Male : has a cream-coloured patch extending from the culmen of the bill to the crown ; behind 
the eye a green patch extending to the occiput ; remainder of the head and neck cream-colour, 
blotched and dotted with black ; breast vinaceous, the edges of the feathers lightest ; back grew, 
narrowly barred with black and cream-colour ; w T ing coverts and abdomen white ; under tail coverts 
black ; quills and tail grey ; tertiaries grey, with the outer webs black edged with cream-colour ; 
bill lead colour tipped with black ; legs reddish ; two centre tail feathers elongated. 

Fern. : with the upper surface brown ; each feather edged with lighter ; without the green on 
the head, and rather smaller than the male. 

Anas Americana > Gmel. Syst. 1 . 526. 

Lath.Ind. Orn. 2. 861. 
American Tfid^eon Perm. Arct. Zool. 2. 502. 

Jills. Am. Orn. p. 86, pi. 69, f. 4. 
.Mareca Americana Step!/. Sh. Zool. 12. 135. 

Inhabits America, the West Indies, and Cayenne, frequenting inland lakes and rivers, as well as 
the sea coast ; breeds in the northern part of America in sw r amps, laying six or eight eggs. This 
bird is curious, as presenting a connecting link between the w T idgeon and pintail. The bill is that 
of the former, and the two elongated tail feathers shew an affinity to the latter. 



MARECA CHILOENSIS. 

Mar. — Fronte genis pteromatibus subtusque albis, striga post occulari purpureseente-a?nea. 

CHILOE WIDGEON. 

Widgeon, with the forehead, cheeks, wing coverts, and under surface white ; a post occular 
streak aeneous-purple. 



Length 
Bill . . 
Tarsi.. 



IN. 

19 
If 



IN. 

21 



Middle toe 

Inner toe lg 

Outer toe 1§ 



Widgeon ; with the forehead, cheeks, abdomen, breast, upper and under wing coverts, and 
upper tail coverts, white ; a streak from the eye to the occiput brassy purple; neck, remainder of 
the head, lower part of the back, and numerous transverse bars across the breast, dark brown; 
tertiaries and scapulars also dark brown, with the edges of the feathers white; quills light brown ; 
speculum velvet black; flanks white clouded with ferruginous; tail brown; legs, feet, and bill 
rown. 

. inat ( Ttiloensie, King r /.oal. I'm,-. I .v.1 l •">. 

Inhabits the Island of Chiloe. We have also received specimens from Cayenne. 



118 



MARECA FISTULARIS. 

.Mar. Mus. — Vertice flavo; capite cristaque castaneis. 
Mar. Fern. — Brunnea, marginibus pennarum sutuiatioribus. 



WIDGEON. 

Male, crown cream-coloured ; head crested chesnut. 
Fern, brown, with the edges of the feathers lighter. 

IN. IN. IN. 

Length 20 Bill \\ Tarsi 1£ 

Widgeon, with the crown cream-coloured ; cheeks, throat, and neck chesnut, occasionally 
spotted with black; breast vinaceous ; back white, each feather minutely barred and waved with 
dark grey; flanks the same; belly white ; under tail coverts black; speculum metallic green, 
bounded by black ; wing coverts white ; remainder of the quills and coverts grey ; bill lead 
coloured ; legs and feet black. 

Fern. : with the back fuscous grey, the edges of the feathers lighter ; head and neck fuscous 
spotted with black ; below white ; remainder as in the male. 

Marecafistt/laris Steph. Sh. Zool, 12. 131. 

Anas fist ular is Briss. Orn. 6. 391, p. 35,/ 2. 

Anas Penelope Linn. Syst. 1 . 202. 

Gmel.Syst. 1. 527. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 860. 
Widgeon Penn. Brit. Orn. 2. 268. 

Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 518. 

Canard siffteur Buff. Ois. 9. 169, ;;/. 10, 11. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, vol. iv. tab. 1 3, fig. 9. 

Common in the British islands during winter, frequenting both the sea and fresh water. 
It is a very widely distributed species, being found throughout Africa, America, and Asia. The 
trachea in the male of this species, like that of several of the genera nearly allied to it, is largest 
immediately below the glottis, and again slightly enlarged at about one-third of its length interiorly ; 
the inferior larynx, except in size (being smaller) greatly resembles that of Anas Doschas. 




• 






- 



119 



MARECA CASTANEA. 

Mar. Mas. — Castaneus atro maculato ; speculoque viridi. 

Mar. Fern. — Brunnea cinerea, marginibus pennarum suturatioribus, 

CASTANEOUS WIDGEON. 

Mas. castaneous spotted with black ; the wing spot green. 
Fem. cinereous brown, with the edges of the feathers lighter. 

IN. IX. IN. 

Length Yl\ Bill 1 3-5ths Tarsi 1| 

Male : under parts, neck, and upper part of the back castaneous, spotted with black ; lower 
part of the back black, each feather edged with castaneous ; wing coverts brown, slightly tinged 
with greenish ; quills brown ; secondary coverts tipped with white ; tail and under coverts black 
glossed with green and purplish ; wing spot bright green ; head black glossed with green ; bill, 
legs, and feet black. 

Fem. : rather smaller than the male ; light brownish grey, spotted with darker ; wing spot 
green, edged anteriorly with white, and posteriorly with black ; bill and legs as in the male. 

Mareca castanea nobis. 

Inhabits New Holland. The first specimens Ave observed were in the collection of the Natural 
History and Anticpiarian Society of Shrewsbury, presented (together with many other birds from 
the same country) by Major Wakeman. 



AIA GALERICULATA. 

Ai. Mas. — Vei-tice occipiteque viridibiu ; fascia lata supra-occulari alba ; tectricibua tertiu ad apicea 

expandentibus. 
-/'. Fem. — Faciis duabus alis. 

MANDARIN DUCK. 

Male, with the crown and occipital creel green ; a broad white band over the eye ; tertiariea 
expanded at the tip. and prominent. 

Fem. with two white bare on the wing 



120 



Length 
Bill . . 

Tarsi . 



18£ 
H 

n 



Inner toe 1| 

Middle toe 1* 



Outer toe 



H 



Male : head with a long occipital crest and crown purplish green ; above the eye a broad band 
of white ; throat, cheeks, and remainder of the neck bright reddish ferruginous, the shaft of each 
feather lighter ; breast bright purple ; back, tail, and wings hair brown ; scapulars with the outer 
webs black ; the inner ones wdiite ; one tertiary prolonged and expanded on each side, prominent 
over the back ; on the lower part of the breast a broad band of black not meeting in front, on 
which there are one or two narrow ones of white ; flanks ferruginous, beautifully undulated \\ itli 
narrow bands of black ; belly, vent, and under tail coverts white ; bill and legs orange. 

Fern. : similar to the summer duck A. sponsa, but may be distinguished from it (according to 
Latham) by having two bars of white on the wing, and by the white spots on the breast being 
round instead of triangular, 

Anas galericuhzta Linn. Syst. 1. 206. 

Gmcl. Syst. 1. 539. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 871. 

Querqucdula sinensis Briss. Orn. (>. 150. 

Chinese Teal Edn: Gka. pi. 102. 

Lath. Gen. Syn. G. 548. 
SarceUe de la C 'hine Buff. Ois. 'J. -270. 

Inhabits China and Japan, where it is kept (as in this country), for the sake of its beauty, in a 
state of domestication. Nothing is known of its habits in a wild state. 



AIA SPONSA. 

.J/. Mas. — Capite colloque viridibus; gutture albo; 

A\. Fern. — Brunnen, rostro cingnloque occulari etiam ad basin rostri, et fascia alis allii*. 



SUMMER DUCK. 

Mas. head and upper part of the neck metallic green ; throat white ; crest long. 
Fern, dark brown, with the belly, space round the eye, and bill wdiitc ; one white band across 
the wing. 



Length , 

BUI . . , 



20 

1^ 



Tarsi 

Middle toe 2 



1^ 



121 

Crown and neck and occipital crest glossy green; line extending from the bill over the eye, 
another from the lower part of the eye to the occiput, together with the throat, white; neck and 
upper part of the breast purplish, and sprinkled with spots of white; scapulars, wing coverts, and 
tail black, beautifully glossed in some lights with green and purple inflections ; on the lower part 
of the breast is a white bar, posteriorly to which is a black one; flanks yellowish ferruginous, 
barred and undulated with dusky ; under tail coverts and quills sooty black ; below white ; bill and 
legs orange. 

Fern. : dusky slate brown, with a space round the eye, a band round the bill, the throat, and 
belly white ; breast dusky, marked with triangular spots of white ; quills and tail as in the male ; 
legs and bill dusky. 

A/a sponsa Bote Isis. 1826. 

Dendronessa sponsa Faun. Bo. Am. 2. 446. 

Anas sjwnsa Linn. Sijst. 1 . 207. 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 539. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 871. 

Anas JEstb-a Briss. Orn. 6. 351. pi. 32, Jig. 2. 

Summer Duck Catesb. Carol. 1 . pi. 97. 

Echo. Glea. p. 101. 

Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 546. 

Beau canard, Huppe R'-'ff- Ois. 9. 254. 

Trachea Mont. Orn. die, Sup. fig. 5, et nobis. 

Inhabits America, from Hudson's Bay to Mexico and the Antilles, throughout the whole of which 
space it breeds, seldom frequenting the sea. It generally makes its nest in decayed trees hanging 
over the water, laying twelve or thirteen eggs. 

This species is often kept in confinement in this country, and breeds freely, as well as its 
congener. The inferior larynx is that of the true wading duck, and much resembles in miniature 
that of the widgeon ; it is, however, more expanded anteriorly, the two ends of the bulb being of 
equal size. 



QUERQUEDULA JAVANENSIS. 

Quer. — Capite viridi, macula ad basum rostri; gutture et fascia occipital) albis. 

JAVA TEAL. 
Head green, with a spot at the base of the lull; throat and patch extending to the occiput white. 



Length 18 

/:</>. al 27 

Bill U 



Tarsi 

Middle toe 2 



if 



122 

Head bright glossy green ; spot behind the cnlmen of the bill, throat, and streak towards the 
back of the neck from the latter white ; collar white; breast with each feather beautifully marked 
with lunules of black ; vent coverts white undulated with black ; wing spot purplish green, above 
which is a conspicuous spot of velvet black ; tertiaries very long, with the shaft and a narrow 
edging exteriorly white, and the edge of the posterior or inner web grey ; quill and tail feathers grey ; 
upper and under tail coverts black ; vent buff, anteriorly to which there is a band of black ; feet and 
bill black. 

Anas Javancnsis Veill. En. Method. Orn. 1. 160. 

Sarcelle de /' He de Java Buff. Ois. torn. xvii. p. 395. 

Inhabits Java. I have never seen but one specimen of this beautiful species ; it is in Lord Derby's 
collection at Knowsley, and has been exhibited at one of the Zoological Society's evening meetings. 



QUERQUEDULA GLOCITANS. 

Quer. Mas. — Capite viridi, macula rotundata castanea ante oculari et post OClllari Oinato. 
(Juer. Fem. — Bmnnea, marginibus pennarum suturatioribus. 

BIMACULATED TEAL. 

Male Teal, with the head green, ornamented with a rounded chesnut patch before and behind 
the eyes. 

Fem. brown teal, with the margin of the feathers lighter. 

IN. IN. IN. 

Length 15 Bill 1| Tarsi 1 9-20ths 

Male : head and neck green, with a dark chesnut patch before and behind the eyes ; the throat 
approaching to black ; back and flanks white, undulated with black lines ; breast and abdomen 
ferruginous, with a few black spots ; wing coverts fuscous ; speculum velvet black, bordered 
anteriorly with violaceous, posteriorly with white ; quills brown, margined with lighter ; bill, feet, 
and legs lead-coloured ; the webs black. 

Fem. : slightly smaller than the male ; head and neck light ferruginous, with the crown and 
base of each feather darker ; abdomen white ; back and flanks fuscous ferruginous, with the base of 
each feather brown. 

Anas glocitans Tall. Aria Stuck. 1 . 77!), ID. tab. 33, fy. 1 . 

Gmel. S/jst. 1. 526. 

Lath. I, id. Orn. 862. 
Querquedula glocitans Vig. Lin. Trans, col. xiv. 559. 

Gould, Birds of Europe. 

Bhnaculated Teal Penn. Brit. Zool. 2. 602. 

Canard Glousscur J'cill. En. .Method. Orn. 1. 126. 

Said to inhabit Siberia and the neighbourhood of Lake Baikal. One or two specimens only have 
been met with in England. 



123 



QUERQUEDULA CRECCA. 

Qner. Mas. — Capite colloque castaneis, fascia occipitali viricli. 

Quer. Fem. — Brunnea, marginibus pennarum suturatioribus ; subtus alba. 

COMMON TEAL. 

Teal, with the head and neck chesnut, with a green occipital fascia. 
Fem. brown teal, with the margin of the feathers lighter; below white. 

IN. IN. 

Length 14± Tarsi 1 l-Cth 

Bill 1 5-12ths Middle toe If 

Male: head, cheeks, and neck chesnut; from the eye to the occiput passes a band of metallic 
green, bordered by a stripe of yellowish ; below white ; the breast dotted with black ; the scapulars, 
back, and flanks white undulated with black ; wing coverts brown ; quills hoary fuscous ; speculum 
metallic green, bounded above and below by velvet black ; lateral tail coverts with a band of black. 

Fem. : brown, with the edge of the feathers lighter ; below yellowish white ; speculum green, 
without the black edging ; crown brown. 

Querquedula crecca Steph. S/i. Zool. 12. 146. 

Anas crecca Linn. Syst. 1 . 264. 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 532. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 672. 

Common Teal Perm. Arct. Zool. 2. 577. 

Green-winged Teal Wits. Am. Orn. 8. 106, pi. 70. fig. 40. 

Petite sareelle Stiff. Ois. 9. 265. 

Canard sareelle d' H'tvcr Temm. Man. d' Orn. 2. 846. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, vol. 4, tab. 12, fig. 1. 

Breeds in most marshy lakes in the north of Europe, America, Asia, and the British Isles ; 
migrates southwards during winter, when it frequents almost entirely fresh water. Mr. Selby, in 
his " Illustrations of British Ornithology," mentions that he is inclined to think that our indigenous 
broods seldom quit the immediate neighbourhood of the place in wdiich they were bred. The nest 
is formed of grass, and it lays from eight to ten eggs of a whitish colour. 

Trachea with the tube largest immediately below the glottis, then contracted, then expanded, 
and gradually lessening to the inferior larynx, which is similar in form to that of Anas Boschas. 



121 



QUERQUEDULA CAROLINEXSIS. 

Quer. — Precedent] similis, sed distingueri potest fascid albfi ante alia. 

AMERICAN TEAL. 
Quer. similar to Q. crecca, but distinguished from it by a white bar on each side of the breast. 

IS. IN. IX. 

Length 15 Bill l| Tarsi 1 

Precisely similar to Q. crecca, with the exception of the under tail coverts, which are black, 
and in having a white band on each side opposite the point of the Aving. 

Anas Carolinensia Gmel. SyH. Not. 1 . 533. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 874. 

Jard. I II /is. Orn. pi. 
American Teal Pen//. Arc/. Zool. 2. "t84. 

Inhabits America, where it takes the place of the preceding species. 



QUERQUEDULA FORMOSA. 

Quer. — A ertice, gutture, fasciaque ab hoc ad oculos atris, utrinque albo marginato. 

BAIKAL TEAL. 

Teal, with the crown, throat, and a streak proceeding from the latter to the eye black, bounded 
on each side with white. 

IN. IN. 

Length \b\ Tarsi 1| 

Bill 1 5-)-2ths Middle toe 1 4-5ths 

Male : crown and throat black, with each leather slightly tipped with ferruginous brown ; from 
the latter proceeds a black waved streak to the eye, bounded on each side by a narrow one of white, 
and enclosing a patch of fawn-colour ; from the bill through the eye proceeds a broad band of 
glossy green to the occiput, where it is broadest, and bifurcate below, the centre branch extending 
down to the back of the neck, the lateral ones curve to the fore neck, but do not meet, the whole 
bounded by a narrow edging of white ; forepart of the neck bright reddish fawn colour, spotted 
with black; back brown; lower part of the neck behind black, thickly irrorated with white: 
flanks the same; belly white ; epulis and coverts brown; middle coverts tipped with brown ; pri- 



125 

mary coverts glossy purplish black, tipped with white ; tertiaries long, outer webs black edged 
with ferruginous ; inner webs light fawn colour ; tail brown ; tail coverts the same, edged with 
lighter; under tail coverts black, having on the sides anteriorly a broad band of white ; the under 
coverts bounded laterally with a bar of ferruginous ; bill brown ; legs light yellow ; wing spot 
bounded anteriorly by brown, posteriorly by white. 
Fem. : unknown. 

Querquedula formosa Sleph. Sh. Zool. vol. 12. 151 . 

Anas formosa Gmcl. Si/st. Nat. 1 . 523. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. b'6. 
Baikal Teal Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 557. 

Inhabits Russia and Lake Baikal. (Lath. J Specimens are in the museum of the Zoological 
Society, brought over by R. Reeves, Esq. in 1832, from China ; and also in our own. We 
have also very lately succeeded in obtaining the trachea, of which a figure is given : though that of 
a true teal, it is remarkable for the exceeding small size of the larynginal bulb, and also for a slight 
approach it makes in form to that of the next genus, Cyanopterus, 



QUERQUEDULA MANILLENSIS. 

Quer. — Genis albis, fascia brunnea occipite ad collum inferiorem tendente. 

MANILLA TEAL. 

Teal, with the cheeks dirty white, with a streak from the occiput to the lower part of the 
neck, when it expands into a collar, brown. 



IN. 



IN. 



Length 15 Tarsi lg 

Bill 2 Middle toe If 



Allied to Q. formosa ; tertiaries not acuminated, and ferruginous ; breast as in the last ; 
upper parts of the back olive brown ; tail and rump black glossed with green ; belly white in-orated 
with black ; middle vent coverts black ; lateral coverts white ; secondary quills with the outer webs 
brassy green ; coverts white tipped with black ; small coverts black ; quills brown ; bead, neck, 
and crown dark brown ; cheeks dirty white ; from the occiput proceeds a streak of brown to the 
lower part of the neck, when it expands into a collar ; bill lead colour ; feet and legs light orange. 

Anas ManiUetma Chnel. Syat. Nat. I 523 

Lath. Tnd. Orn. 2. 876. 

Sareelle ie V Tale de Lucon Bonn. Voy. Ind. 91, pi. 54. 

Manilla Teal Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. ■".57. 

Inhabits the Manillas. Specimens are in our collection, and in thai of the Earl of Derbj 



126 



QUEKQUKDULA FA LC ARIA. 

Quer. Mas. — Capite brunneo ; cingulo collari guttereque purpureis. 
Qner. Fern. — Brunnea, marginibus pennarum suturatioribus. 

FALCATED TEAL. 

Teal, with the head deep brown ; ring round the neck and throat purple. 
Fem. brown teal, with the margins of the feathers lighter. 

IN. IN. 

Length 17 Tarsi \\ 

Bill 11 Middle toe 2 

Male : head and crown deep brown ; ring round the neck and throat brassy purple ; remainder 
of the neck and a spot behind the upper part of the base of the bill white ; belly, breast, flanks, 
and upper part of the back white, each feather lunulated with ashy black ; tail ashy ; upper tail 
coverts and centre of the under ones black, laterally buff, anteriorly to which there is a black streak, 
then a patch of white ; quills ashy brown ; tertiaries long, inner webs brown grey, outer glossy 
green edged with light grey, the edging broader at the base ; wing spot green ; primary coverts 
light ashy brown, lightest on the edge. 

Fem. : about half an inch shorter than the male ; brown, each feather lunulated with darker ; 
crown dark brown ; neck light brown, streaked with dark brown ; tertiaries long ; wings and tail 
as in the male ; coverts brown ; belly light ; legs and bill in both sexes lead coloured. 

Anas falcaria Gmel. Syst. Nat. 8. 521. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 860. 
Falcated Duck Penn. Aret. Zool. 2. .574. 

Lath. Gen. Syn. G. 516. 
Anas falcaria Steph. Sh. Zoo!, ml. \ii. p. 100. 

The specimens from which the above descriptions were taken are in the British Museum, and 
were brought home by R. Reeves, Esq. from China. 



127 



QUERQUEDULA ERYTHRORHYNCIIA. 

Quer. — Brunnea, ptilis atris. tectrices majores speculoque tcneis. 

CRIMSON-BILLED DUCK. 

Brown, with the upper coverts velvet black, the greater ones and speculum brassy green. 

IN. IN- 1N - 

Length 18 Bill 1| Tarsi i{ 

Above brown, with the edges of the feathers brighter ; throat inclining to grey ; back, lesser 
wing coverts, and tail velvet black ; below the upper tail coverts and flanks grey, the latter with 
two or three deep brown spots ; the breast sometimes slightly waved with brown ; the remainder of 
the wing beautiful aeneous green, with the exception of the two outer quill feathers, which are black, 
and the terminal half of the secondaries, which are white; bill and legs bright red in the male. 
fuscous in the female ; bill brown, with a red patch on each side at the base. 

Anas Erythrorhyncha Spix. X. Sp. avium. 

Inhabits Southern America. 

We had an opportunity of dissecting this bird through the kindness of the Earl oi Derby. 

who had a pair alive for some time. 

The trachea and inferior larynx is that of a typical teal. It may, however, be distinguished 
from that of Q. crecca (which it in other respects resembles) by the bulb being more oblique, and 
swelling more in an upward direction. g 

The tube of the trachea in both sexes is acted upon by two pairs of muscles of voice, the first 
pair the usual sterno-tracheal ones ; in the female the second pair diverge from the tube, where it 
penetrates the cavity of the chest, and are inserted into the membrane stretched between the ram 
of the os furcatum and the coracoids. In the male they diverge similarly, and are inserted m the 
rami of the os furcatum, having also a slight attachment along the internal surface of the membrane 
stretched between the rami of the os furcatum, which is not the ease in the female. 



12s 



QUERQUEDULA CRECCOIDES. 

Qucr. — Pallide brunnea-grisea, sparse notataque dorso imo ptilisque fascis hie apice rufo, Bpeculo nigro, 
fulvo marginato. 

MOTTLED TEAL. 

IN. IN. IN. 

Length 161 Bill If Tarsi \\ 

The head and neck of this bird arc finely marked with fuscous dots, those of the neck being 
mostly in transverse lines, thus forming several undulating fascia; the feathers of the upper pari of 
the hack are of a brownish grey, and are marked in the centre by oval fuscous spots; the scapular 
feathers are similarly marked by long central black strigje, which in some lights are of a beautiful 
green; the lower part of the back is of a uniform fuscous colour; the upper wing coverts arc 
fuscous, the apices of the lowest range of feathers being also terminated with rufous, which colour 
forms a narrow fascia across the wing immediately over the speculum ; the external secondary quill 
feathers are black on their outside margin, and are terminated with light bull; the internal webs 
are fuscous on their outside webs, with a shade of deep green, and slightly margined with buff; 
the breast and middle of the abdomen are whitish, the feathers of the former being strongly marked 
with round black spots in the centre, those of the latter being more strongly marked, so as to 
exhibit irregular fascitv ; bill yellow, with a black apex. 

Anas Creccoides, King Zool. Jour. 4. 99. 

Inhabits the Straights of Magellan: a specimen is in the museum of the Zoological Society. 



QUERQUEDULA CAPENSIS. 

Quer. — Rostro coccineo: marginibus capitroque basali atris. 

CAPE TEAL. 
Teal, with the bill crimson ; the margins and a band round the base Mack 

IN. IN. 

Length \8\ Tarsi 2\ 

Bill li Middle toe... 2{ 

Light brown teal, with all the dorsal aspect with the feathers edged with lighter; those on 
the breast and under parts very light brown, with a lunule of darker on each feather ; the throat 



129 

white ; the head and neck spotted, and minutely streaked with dark and light brown ; wing spot 
bright green, margined on every side but the upper with a band of white ; wing coverts, quills, and 
tail blue slate-coloured, the latter with each feather edged with much lighter; legs reddish brown. 
Female similar, but rather smaller. 

Querquedula capensis Smith, Cat. S. Afrie. Mus. 

Inhabits Southern Africa, and brought home by Dr. Smith, by whom it will be figured in bi& 
forthcoming work on South African Zoology. 



QUERQUEDULA HOTTENTOTA. 

Quer. Mas. — Brunneus, uiaiginibus peiinamm sutuiatioribus ; tectricibus caudse juguloque pallide bruii- 

neis, illo atro fasciato. 

Quer. Feru. — Mari simDis, sed tectricibus cauda? toto corpori sunilibus. 

HOTTENTOT TEAL. 

Male, brown teal, with the margins of the feathers lighter; the tail coverts and throat light 
brown ; the latter fasciated with black. 

Fern, like the male, but with the quill feathers like the rest of the body. 



Length 14± Tarsi 1 

Bill 1| Middle toe 1| 



Male; umber brown, with the edges of the feathers lighter ; the crown, occiput, and quills 
dark brown ; chin, throat, cheeks, rump, and under tail coverts light brown, the latter narrowly 
barred with darker ; breast and lower part of the neck and under surface darker than on the rump ; 
the abdomen barred with black ; speculum and secondaries bright brassy green, the former edged 
posteriorly with black, then with white; coverts brown, slightly glossed will) brassy; tail dark 
brown. 

Fern.: similar to the male, but with the markings generally not so distinct, and the whole 
plumage below tighter; legs in both sexes brown ; bill lead coloured, with the nail horn colour. 

Querquedula Hottentota Smith, < 'at. S. Afrie. Mum. 

Brought home by Dr. Smith from the western coast of South Africa, near the Orange river; 

cimen i* also in our collection, but we are not aware from what locality. 



130 



CYANOPTERUS CIRCIA. 

Cyan. Mas. — Undulatus brunneo et albo; ptilis azureis-cinereis. 

Cyan. Fern. — Brannea. marginibus pennarum suturatioribus. 



GARGANEY TEAL. 

Male teal, undulated with brown and white ; lesser coverts blueish grey. 

Fern, brown teal, with the margin of the feathers lighter ; coverts as in the male. 



IN. 



Length 16^ Tarsi . . , 1 1-iOth 

Bill H Middle toe 1| 

Male : crown, back of the neck, cheeks, and sides of the neck brown, the latter inclining to 
chesnut in some specimens ; a white stripe from the bill under each eye ; lower part of the neck and 
breast whitish, marked with brown lunulcs ; back brown, with the edges of the feathers lighter; 
scapulars brown, with a white stripe down the shaft of each ; wing coverts blue grey ; the rump 
and tail brown ; below white, undulated with dark brown on the flanks ; speculum green ; bill, 
tarsi, and feet lead coloured; eyes brown. 

Fern. : brown, each feather edged with lighter ; throat w T hite ; below yellowish white ; wings 
as in the male. 

Querquedula circia Steph. Sh. Zool. 12. 143. 

. /. as circia Linn. Syst. 1 . 204. 

Gmel. i'y*t. 1. 553. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 873. 
Anas Querquedula Linn. Syst. 1 . 263-2. 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 531. 

RaiiSyn. 148. 8. 
Garganey Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 57<;. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 6. 550. 

Le Sarcelle d'etc Huf. Ois. 9. 21 18. 

Lr Sarcelle coninnui Buff. Ois. 9. 260. 

Trachea Linn. Trm,*. ml. 1. tab. 1 3,fy. 2—3. 

Found over the whole of Asia, the northern part of Africa, and Europe ; visits the British isles in 
May, frequenting fresh water ; breeds in Holland ; its nest is constructed of grass placed by the 
water side ; lays from ten to twelve white etrsrs. 

Trachea with the tube smaller about an inch below the glottis, then slightly swelled, and 
again slightly contracted about one inch above the inferior larynx, from which point it gradually 
expands to the end. The inferior larynx with an osseous bulb extending anteriorly and on both 
sides, and not swelling out so abruptly as in the preceding genus or among the true teal. 



131 



CYANOPTERUS FRETENSIS. 

Cyan. Mas. — Gula colloqne anteriore pallide vadiis ; Jorso, abdomineque, imis caudaque, albis, nigro 
fasciatis ; ptilis creruleis. 

Cyan. Fem. — Gula colloque ut in mare; clorso inio ptilisque atro-cseruleis ; abdomine t'emigineo, 
sparso et fasciato atro. 

FASCIATED TEAL. 

IN. IN. 

Length 14 Inner toe 1 l-6th 

Bill 1| Middle toe If 

7am 1 Outer toe 1 5-12ths 

Male Teal, with the back, breast, forepart of the neck, and cheeks light yellowish brown, 
the two former having in the centre of each feather a dark brown patch ; flanks, abdomen, tail, and 
rump white, the former broadly and the latter narrowly barred transversely with black ; vertex as 
far down as the eyes, and a streak clown the back of the neck, deep brown ; feet, legs, and bill 
blueish brown, the latter with a yellow patch on each side of the bill, extending beyond the nostrils; 
wing coverts slaty blue, the greater ones tipped w ith white ; secondaries aeneous green, also tipped 
with white ; epulis and tertiaries (which are long) dusky, the latter with the centre of each feather 
darker. 

Female and young similar to the male, but with the abdomen and flanks ferruginous, irregu- 
larly barred and irrorated with dark brown ; rump black ; the bill without the yellow markings on 
the sides. 

Anas fretensis, King Zool. Proc. Dec. 14, 1830. 

Inhabits the Straits of Magellan and other localities on the western coast of South America. 



CYANOPTERUS DISCORS. 

( ',/,,„. — Capite cinereo branneo, lunula alba ante oculos. 

BLUE-WINGED TEAL. 
Teal, with the head ashy brown ; a large white lunule before the eye. 

IK. IN. W. 

Length 10 Bill IJ Tarsi Lg 



Head ashy brown, slightly glossed at the tip of each feather with brassy; crown darkest; 
between th'' eye and hill, and partially surrounding the former, a large lunate Bpol of white, the 



132 

horns projecting backwards; breast and neck ferruginous, beautifully spotted with dark brown; 
quills, tail, and back dark brown, the latter slightly lunated with ferruginous; under tail coverts 
deep black or brown, on the sides a patch of white ; wing coverts bright blue, lower ones marked 
with a streak of white, then with one of green ; anterior tertiaries with the outer webs blue ; on the 
inner side of the shaft a streak of ferruginous ; the remainder black. 

Female: length 15 inches; wing coverts as in the male; tertiaries and remainder brown 
lunated with ferruginous ; crown darker. 

Querquedula discors Steph. hi Sh. Zool. vol. 12. 1 in. 

Lbin. Syst. A'at. 1. 205. 

Lath. In, I. Oi-n. >. 654. 

Sarcelle soucrourou Buff. PI. Enl. 966, mas. 

soucrourette 103, fern. 

White-faced Duel- Catesb. Carol. \. 100, mas. 

Blue-winged Teal 1 . 99, /<»'. 

Inhabits the American continent, from the 58th parallel to Guiana and the West Indies. 



CYANOPTERUS RAFFLESII. 

Cyan. — Castaneo'ferrugineus, speculo viridi. 

RAFFLES'S TEAL. 
Deep reddish chesnut teal, with the speculum green. 

IN. IS. 

Lenyth 18 Tarsi lj; 

Bill 2 Middle toe ...... 2 

Deep reddish chesnut teal, with the crown and vent inclining to dark brown ; each of the 
feathers on the back with black lunules ; tertiaries black and blue, with the shaft buff; wing 
coverts light blue ; speculum metallic green ; quills and tail black. 

Anas Itafflesii, ICing Zool. Jourti. 4. .'»7. 

First brought home by Capt. King from Chili; since which time we have received specimens 
from the same locality. Said by navigators to be exceedingly common on the west of South America. 



133 



RHYNCHASPIS RHYNCHOTIS. 

Iihyn. Mas. — Ferrugineus ; capite c olio que superiore cseruleis; tectricibus caudse oigris : speculo viridi. 
Rhyn. Fern. — Briumea, marginibus pennarum suturatioribus ; rostro pallido. 

NEW HOLLAND SHOVELLER. 

Male shoveller, with the head and upper part of the neck blue ; under and upper tail coverts 
black ; -wing spot green. 

Fein, shoveller, brown, each feather edged with lighter ; bill horn colour. 



IN. IN. 



Length 20 Tarsi \\ 

Bill 1 -2-5ths Middle toe I 1 



8 



Male: head and neck, lesser coverts, and tertiaries light blue, some of the latter with a stripe 
on the inner side of the shaft white ; bar behind the base of the bill on each side white ; centre of 
the back, quills, and tail white, with a lunule near the tip and two spots on the shaft of each 
feather brown ; w T ing spot bright brassy green, anterior to which is awhile stripe; flanks, belly, 
and breast deep ferruginous, the former barred and dotted, and the latter undulated with brown ; 
above the thighs on each side a white spot ; under and upper tail coverts black ; under wing coverts 
white ; top of the head and back of the neck darkest ; bill black ; legs orange. 

Fem. : brown, with the tip of each feather lighter; below lightest; lesser coverts slightly 
inclining to blue ; bill and legs horn colour in the dried specimen. 

Young: male nearly intermediate between the two ; bill black ; legs orange. 

Anas Rhynchotis Lath. Ind. Orn. . 1pp. 1 . 

Rhynchaspis Rhynchotis Steph. in Sh. Zool. 12. 123. 

.A 'em Holland Shoveller Lath. Gen. Syn. Sup. 359. 

Inhabits New Holland, and appears to be identical with specimens received from South America. 

The bird described by Latham under the name of Anas Rhynchotis is the young. It is 
possible also that the white markings mentioned as present in our specimens of the old male, behind 
the base of the bill and down the fore neck, are not constant, but merely appear during the moult. 



134 



RHYNCHASPIS MACULATUS. 

Rhyn. — Precedenti sitnilis. scd corpore flavescente-fi'inigineo, nigris maculis rotundatia ornatis ; capite 

simili. nigro sparse 

SPOTTED SHOVELLER. 

Shoveller like the preceding, hut with the body yellowish-ferruginous, adorned with rounded 
black spots ; head the same, sprinkled with black. 

IN. IN. 

Length 20 Tarsi 1^ 

Bill 2 3-10ths Middle toe 2 1-lOtb 

We have considerable doubts as to the validity of this species. The marks of distinction 
between it and R. Rhi/nchotis are the following: the nail on the bill is broader, the flattened space 
between the nostrils and behind them is also broader ; the whole body is of a lighter colour, and 
spotted in the centre of each feather with round dots ; the white spot behind the thighs is similar, 
but the admeasurements slightly differ. We suspect that this bird will eventually turn out to be 
the female of Rhynchotis ; and that the birds we have described as female and young of that bird 
will turn out to be both young males. 

ffiiynchaspis maculatus Gould in Jard. and Selb. Flltts. Orn. p. 117. 

Mr. Gould received his bird from South America ; ours was received from New Holland. 



RHYNCHASPIS CLYPEATA. 

Rhyn. Mas. — Capite colloque viridibus; ptilis cseruleis. 
Rhyn. Fem. — Brunnea, marginibus pennarum suturatioribus. 

COMMON SHOVELLER. 

Male shoveller, with the head and neck green ; the wing coverts blue. 
Fem. shoveller, brown, with the margins of the feathers lighter. 

IN. IW. 

Length 20 Tarsi 1| 

Bill 2J Middle toe 2 

Male : head and neck glossy metallic green ; throat black ; breast, smaller scapulars, and 
greater wing coverts white; larger scapidars and lesser wing coverts blue, the former with a light 



135 

stripe down the centre of each feather ; speculum green ; epulis and tail brown ; the outer tail 
feathers elongated, pointed ; below chesnut ; bill fuscous red. 

Fem. : brown, having the edges of all the feathers lighter ; wing as in the male. 

RhyncJiaspis clypeata Steph. Sh. Zool. 12. 1 15. 

Atias clypeata Linn. Syst. 1. 200. 1 9. 

Grnel. Syst. 1. 518. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 856. 

Spathulea clypeata Flem. Brit. An. 123. 

Anas platyrhynchos Rati Syn. 144. 13. 

Shoveller Penn. Arc/. Zool. 2 X. 489. 

Penn. Brit. Zool. 2. 596. 

Bed-breasted Shoveller Penn. Brit. Zool. 2. 597. 

Souchet on le rouge B"ff- Ois. 9. 191. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, vol. 4, tab. 13, Jiff. 4, 5. 

"Was found in the Deccan by Col. Sykes : one specimen has been brought home by Dr. Smith 
from South Africa. Generally inhabits Asia, Europe, America, and North Africa ; breeds in 
Holland, and has occasionally bred in Norfolk, laying twelve eggs ; little, however, is known of its 
nidification. 

Trachea with the tube of nearly equal size ; the inferior larynx bulbous, bulb projecting both 
before and on the left side, anteriorly slightly acuminate; the bronchiee far apart. 



RHYNCHASPIS CAPENSIS. 

Iihyn. — Brunncus ; Biibtus singulis pennis lunula, centrali, apiceque leviter ferrugineis. 

CAPE SHOVELLER. 

Broun shoveller ; below with a lunule, and the tip of each feather light ferruginous. 

IN. IN- 

Length 22| Tarsi 1 \ 

Bill 2f Middle toe 2| 

Head and neck light brown, minutely spotted with dark brown ; crown and slightly elongated 
feathers on the occiput darker; below dark sepia brown, each feather having its tip and a transverse 
lunule in the centre light brownish buff;, the back brown, slightly glossed with greenish; greater 
quills and tail deep brown, the latter edged with lighter ; secondaries with the outer webs metallic 
green; tertiaries with the outer webs blue; lesser wing coverts azure, the greater ones white, 
forming a hand of that colour across the wing; bill black ; legs reddish orange. 

Bhynchaspit i 'apensia Smith, < 'at, S. African Mus. 

We are indebted to Dr. Smith for allowing us to take the above description from the specimens 
exhibited in the South African museum, of which he intends shortly t<> publish drawings. 



13G 



MALACORHYNCHUS MEMBRINACEUS. 

MttL Mas. — Cinereus, macula caryophylacca post oculari. 
Mai. Fem. — Mare similis. sed macula post ocularis caret. 

MEMBRINACEOUS DUCK. 

Male, ashy, with the side of the bill towards the tip membrinaceous ; a pink spot behind the eye. 
Fem. similar, hut without the pink spot behind the eye. 



IN. IV. 



Length 161 Bill 2f Tarsi 1 j 

Male: grey, transversely striped with brownish black; stripes broadest on the flanks; neck 
brown ; a stripe round the eye and down the back of the neck dark brown ; a little behind the eye 
a bright pink spot ; back brown, transversely irrorated with lighter ; rump black ; tail coverts 
white; tail brown; under tail coverts fawn colour; quills dark brown; coverts light brown, 
except the tip of the primary coverts, which are white, forming a white wing spot ; bill and legs 
brown, the former largely lobated. 

Fem. : as above. 

Anas malacorhynchus Ghnel. Syst. 1. 526. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 862. 

Anas membrinacea Lath. Ind. Orn. App. 1 1 . 

Anasfasciala Shan- .V. Mis. 17 pi. 697 

Sofe-biUed Duck Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 522. 

New Holland Thick Lath Gen. Syn. Sup. 11. 

Rhynchaspis malacorhynchus Steph. Sh. Zoo/. 12. 123. 

membrinacea Steph Sh. Zool. 12. 124 

Inhabits New South Wales. 



137 



KTINORHYNCHUS STREPERA. 

Kti. Mas. — Cinereus et albus ; speculo atro ; tectricibus castaueis. 
Kti. Fern. — Brunnea, marginibus pennaram suturatioribus. 

GADWALL. 

Male, grey and white ; speculum velvet black ; primary coverts chesnut. 
Fem. brown, with the margins of the feathers lighter. 

IN. IN. IN. 

Length 21 Bill If Tarsi li 

Male : head and neck brownish, marked with dots of grey brown ; upper part of the breast 
and lower part of the neck grey brown, each feather marked with a lunule of white ; back the 
same, thickly barred with white ; tertiaries grey, the edges light ; speculum black, anterior to which 
there is a reddish chesnut patch formed by the greater primary coverts, posteriorly one of white ; 
lower part and under tail coverts black ; quills and tail grey ; bill black ; legs fuscous. 

Fem. : with the speculum as in the male ; remainder of the plumage as in the female of the 
common wild duck. 

Chauliodus strepera Gould, European Birds. 

Anas strepera Linn. Syst. 1. 200. 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 520. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 859. 

Ktinorhynchus strepera Nobis. (See preface.) 

Gadn-all Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 575. 

Chipeau Buff. Ois. 9. 187, pi. 12. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, vol. 4, tab. J 3,fff. 8. 

A very widely distributed species. We have received specimens from India, Africa, and 
America. It is also enumerated in the British lists, and is not uncommon in Holland, where it 
breeds in marshes among rushes, laying eight or nine ashy green eggs. 

Tube of the trachea enlarged about one-third of its whole length from the lower extremity, 
and again contracted above the inferior larynx. Inferior larynx with a projection on the left side 
and before ; anteriorly very slightly acuminate. 



l.N 



ANAS PECILORHYNCHA. 

Anas. — Brunnea, marginibus pennarum suturatioribus ; rostro culmine ad basin et apice aurantiacis. 

SPOTTED-BILLED DUCK. 

Brown duck, with the edges of the feathers lighter ; bill with the cutanea at the base and tip 
orange. 

IN. IN. IN. 

Length 25 Bill 2{ Tarsi 2 

Slaty brown, with the feathers on the breast, belly, anil lower part of the neck broadly edged 
with yellowish white, those on the back narrowly so ; crown as far as the eyes umber brown ; neck 
white, with the centre of each feather dashed with brown ; wing spot metallic green, bordered with 
velvet black, anterior to which there is a white stripe; exterior webs with some of the tertiaiirs 
white ; bill black, with the tip for about a quarter of an inch and the upper part of the base orange ; 
legs orange. 

Anas pcecUorhyncha Gtnel. Syst. Nat. 1 . 535. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 850. 

Gray, Ind. Zool. 

Mareca pcvcilorhyncha Steph. Sh. Zool. 12. 134. 

Spotted-hdlcd Duck Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 487. 

Common in the East Indies and Ceylon. 



ANAS SPECULARIS. 

An. — Brunnea, macula magna et ovali utrinque ante oculos; rostro colloque superiore singulis albis. 

BRONZE-WINGED DUCK. 

Brown duck, with a large oval spot before the eyes ; bill and the upper part of the neck sur- 
rounded by a collar of white. 

IN. IN. 

Length 25| Inner toe § 

Bill lg Middle toe 2± 

Tarsi lg Outer toe 21 

Head and neck umber brown, with a large oval spot of white between the eye and bill, placed 



139 

transversely ; a broad collar of white on the upper part of the neck, not meeting at the hack, from 
which proceeds a streak to the chin also -white ; under surface brown grey, undulated with darker ; 
back and coverts brown, slightly glossed with brassy green ; coverts tipped with white ; rump and 
tad ashy brown, the latter darkest ; bdl black ; legs and toes orange ; webs black. 

Anas chalcoptera Kitlitz. 

Anas specularis, King Zoo/. Journal, JVat. col. 4. 98. 

specularoides, King Ditto ditto. 

Inhabits Chili. 



ANAS SUPERCILIOSA. 

Jin. — Brunnea, fascia albida supra et sub oculos ; speculo violaceo. 

SUPERCILIOUS DUCK. 

Brown duck, with a whitish stripe above and below the eye ; speculum violet. 

IN. IN. 

Length 23 Tarsi If 

Bill 21 Middle toe 2| 

Brown, with the head darkest ; a whitish stripe arises at the cuhnen of the bill, and proceeds 
over the eye nearly to the occiput, another arises below the base of the bill, and passes below the 
eye also nearly to the occiput, where the two meet; the whole of the plumage dark brown, with 
the edges of the feathers lighter, and the throat and fore neck yellowish white ; speculum metallic 
violet, surrounded with black ; under wing coverts white ; bill black ; legs brown. 

Sexes similar. 

Anas siqjercitiosa Gmcl. Syst. 1 . 537. 

Lath. Did. Orn. 2. 852. 

Supercilious Duck Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 497. 

Anas sujierciliosa Steph. Sh. Zool. 12. 108. 

Inhabits New Holland. 









no 



ANAS OBSCURA. 

.4n. — Brunnea, speculo violaceo atro marginato. 

DUSKY DUCK. 

Brown duck, with the speculum violet margined with black. 

IN. IN. 

Length 24 Tarsi If 

Bill 2| Middle toe 2| 

Male: crown, lower part of the neck, body, tail, and wings, entirely of a deep dusky brown, 
each feather edged with lighter ; throat, cheeks, and upper part of the neck light brown, each 
feather having on its shaft a dark brown streak ; speculum deep glossy violet margined with black ; 
bill greenish, and formed similar to that of the mallard ; legs and feet dusky yellow. 

Female similar. 

Anas obscura Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1 . 541. 

Lath. Tnd. Orn. 2. 871. 
Dusk;/ Duck Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 545. 

IV Us. Am. Orn. 8. p. \W.pl 1 — 11. 

Penn. Arc/. Zool. N. 496. 

Inhabits America ; occurs chiefly on the coasts of Florida, New England, and New Jersey, 
where it breeds in sequestered places on the marshes, laying eight or ten eggs similar to those of 
A. Boschas. 



ANAS BOSCHAS. 

An. Mas. — C'apite colloque superiore viridibus; singulo collari albo. 
An. Fem. — Brunnea, marginihus pennaruni suturatioribua ; speculo viridi. 

WILD DUCK. 

Male duck, with the head and upper part of the neck green ; collar white. 
Fem. brown duck, with the margins lighter ; speculum green. 

IN. IN. IN. 

Length 24 Bill 2± Tarsi 2 

Male : head and upper part of the neck metallic green, below which is a white collar ; breast 
vinaceous ; back brown ; scapulars and flanks white, undulated with black ; speculum metallic 



141 

green, margined anteriorly and posteriorly with -white ; quills, rump, and tail coverts brown, in 

some lights greenish, middle tail feathers curling upwards ; tail grey-white ; bill yellow ; legs orange. 

Fem. : brown, with the edge of the feathers lighter ; speculum similar to that of the male. 

Var. A. Anas adunca (Linn.) — Hook-billed Duck. 
This variety has the bill turned downwards. 

Var. B. Penguin Duck. 
The peculiar upright position of this variety when at rest and standing distinguishes it. 

Anas Boschas Linn. St/St. 1 . 205. 

Gmel. Sijst. 1 . 538. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 850. 

Wild Duck Penn. Arc/. ZooL 2. 494. 

Le canard saurage B".tF- Ois. 9. 1 15. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, vol. 4. tab. Vl.fig. 10. 

Inhabits universally the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, and does not appear to be 
subject to any considerable migration ; breeds commonly in all marshy districts, laying from ten 
to fifteen eggs of a greenish colour. 

The trachea is of nearly equal diameter throughout ; the inferior larynx is furnished on the 
left side with an osseous bulb ; anteriorly slightlv acuminate. 



ANAS FLAVIROSTRIS. 

An. — Cinereo-brunneo, rostro flavo, naribus macula atari cingentibus. 

YELLOW-BILLED DUCK. 
Cinereous-brown duck, with a yellow bill, and the nostrils surrounded by a black patch. 

!\. IN. 

Length 22± Tarsi 2 

Bill 2\ Middle toe 2| 

Slaty-brown duck, above with the edges of the feathers narrowly margined with lighter, below 
broadly ; wing spot brassy green, surrounded anteriorly and posteriorly with a narrow streak of black, 
superiorly with one of the same colour, formed by the outer webs of the tertiaries, beyond the black 
streak posteriorly and anteriorly a narrow one of white ; tail feathers pointed, slightly edged n ith 
light brown; bill yellow, with a black patch covering the nostrils; nail black; legs and feel 
brownish lead colour. 

Aimk Jhirirustris Smith, < 'at. S. Afric. Mas. 

This new species is an inhabitant of the neighbourhood of the Cape of Good Hope. Specimens are 
in the South African Museum, and in the collection of the Zoological Soeiety. 



142 



ANAS SPARSA. 

An. — Bmnnea, scapularibus remigibusque interioribus tribus vel cluobus transversia el fnsciis ferrugineia 
ornatis. 

SPECKLED DUCK. 
Brown duck, with the scapulars and tertiaries banded with three or four transverse fasciae. 

IN. IS. 

Length 23| Tarsi 2 

Bill If Middle toe 2\ 

Deep sepia brown duck, with the fore part of the neck and throat lighter, but thickly and 
minutely spotted with deep brown ; scapulars and upper tertiaries each with one, two, or three 
bands of buff, on the former interrupted by the shaft and a small space on each side, which are of 
the same colour as the greater portion of the plumage, and on the latter merely extending over the 
outer webs ; wing spot bright metallic green, bounded posteriorly and anteriorly first with a band 
of black, then with one of white ; tail and tail coverts marked as the scapulars, but more obscurely ; 
bill lead coloured ; legs and feet orange, with the webs dusky. 

Anas sparsa Smith, Cat. S. A/ric. Mus. 

Inhabits Southern Africa, and was brought to England by Dr. A. Smith, to whom we are indebted 
for permission to take the above description. 



CARINA 3IOSCHATA. 

( 'ar. — Niger, ptilis albis. 

MUSK DUCK. 
Black, with the coverts white. 



IN. 



Letujth 32± Bill 2% Tarsi 21 

Glossy black, with the wing coverts white ; the bill in the male carunculated, less so in the 
female ; legs black ; caruncle red. In a domesticated state a greater or less quantity of white 
feathers make their appearance. 



U3 

Anas moscJtata Linn. Syst. 1. 199. 

Gmcl. Syst. Nat. 1. 515. 

Anas Sylcestris Braziliensis Rail Syn. 148, 150. 

Carina Sylcestris Stepli. Sli. Zool. 12. 78. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, vol. 4, tab. 11. fig. 1 — 2, and 

tab. 16, fig. 56; col. 15, tab. I5,fig. a. 

Supposed to have been originally natives of South America, but have now been domesticated 
in many parts of the world. In the tame varieties many of the feathers are white. 

The tube of the trachea is of nearly equal size throughout ; the inferior larynx is furnished on 
the left side with a compressed osseous bulb. 



MICROPTERUS PATACHONICUS. 

Mic. — Cinereus ; subtus et macula post oeulari albis 

PATAGONIAN MICROPTERUS. 

Cinereous micropterus ; below and with a patch behind the eye white. 

IN. IN- 

Length 24 Inner toe 2| 

Bill 2 Outer toe 3^- 



Tarsi 2| Hind toe . 



Dark grey, with the edges of the feathers on the flanks, head, back, wing coverts, and breast 
light chocolate ; lower part of the breast, belly, abdomen, under tail coverts, and secondaries white ; 
secondary coverts longer than the primary quills; tail long, with the feathers rather stiff; bill 
dusky green ; legs and toes orange ; thighs and a small triangular mark behind the eye white. 

Micropterus Patachonicus, Kinc/ Froc. Zool. Soc. 1830,^. 15. 

In the museum of the Zoological Society, brought by Capt. James from Pricket's Harbour. 



144 






M1CROPTERCS BRACHYPTERCS. 

Mie. — Cinereus, subtus albus ; macula ferrugiuea gutttirc. 

SHORT-WINGED MICROPTERUS. 

Grey micropterus, with the helly white ; a ferruginous patch on the throat. 

IN. IN. IN. 

Length 27 Bill 2 Tarsi 2± 



Grey, with the head and neck lighter ; a ferruginous tinge on the throat ; belly and wing spot 
white ; legs and bill orange ; nail black. 

^inas hrachyptera Lath. Syn. 6. 439. 

Voyage autour du mondc Frey, p. 39. 

Oiscaux ff rises, ou ois. deplein Pernet Voy. II. eh. xiw p. 21. 

The specimen from which the above description was taken is in the museum of the Zoological 
Society, and was obtained from the Straits of Magellan ; they also inhabit the Falkland and 
Staaten Islands. We have considerable doubts as to the propriety of making this and the preceding 
distinct species. Both are destitute of the powers of flight, merely using their wings to flapper 
over the surface of the sea. They are also bad divers, obtaining their living almost entirely by 
breaking shell-fish along the water-mark : hence the head is so strong, that Mr. Danvin informs 
us he had great difficulty in breaking one with his zoological hammer. 

The tube of the trachea much resembles that of a true pochard ; the inferior larynx approaches, 
however, nearer to that of those geese which have bulbs on that part than to any other form with 
which we are acquainted ; consequently also to the wading ducks, from which it may be distin- 
guished by being much stronger. 



MELANITTA AMERICANA. 

Mel. Mas. — Sequent] similis, sed tubercula ad basim rostri aurantiaca. 

AMERICAN SCOTER. 
Male, duck similar to the following, but with the tubercle at the base of the bill entirely orange. 

IN. IN. 

Length 19 Middle toe 3 

Bill If Outer toe 2| 

Tarsi 2f Inner toe 2f 



145 

Male distinguished from the folio-wing, which it in every other respect resembles, by the 
protuberance at the base of the bill and a small space anteriorly and laterally being entirely orange, 
and by the sides of the nail at the apex of the upper mandible being suddenly narrowed. 

Fern. : a similar distinction holds between the females of this and the following as regards the 
nail. 

Oidemia Americana Faun. Bo. Am. 2. loo. 

JVutt. Orn. 2. 422. 
Brought home by Dr. Richardson from the neighbourhood of Hudson's Bay ; specimens are in 
our collection. 



MELANITTA NIGRA. 

Me/. Mas. — Ater ; tubercula bifida atra ad basin rostri. 

Mel. Fern. — Brunnea; subtus cinerea, macula albicante gutture. 

BLACK SCOTER. 

Male, scoter, with a bifid black tubercle at the base of the bill. 
Fern, brown ; beneath cinereous, with a white patch on the throat. 

IN. IX. 

Length 21 Tarsi . ., 1 9-12ths 

Bill ]| Middle toe 2| 

Male entirely black, glossy on the head and neck ; no speculum ; a bifid protuberance at 
tbe base of the bill, orange in the centre, black on the sides ; a small patch anterior to the tubercle, 
also orange ; remainder black ; legs dark lead coloured. 

Fern. : sooty black or brown ; a large light coloured grey patch on the throat, extending back- 
wards to the hind neck, and below about half way down the fore neck ; bill (devoid or nearly so of 
a tubercle) entirely black ; legs as in the male. 

Young similar to the female. 

Melanitta nigra Brehm. Hum/, der Nat. oiler, Vo. Deut. 903. 

Aikik nigra Lim,. Syst. 1 . 1 96. 

G me/. Syst. 1 . .088. 

Lath. I ml. (Int. •>. 848, 

Alias nigra minor Raii Syn. Ill . ■/. 

Oidemia nigra Mem. Brit, .1". i [ft 

Scoter or Work Diver Verm. . tret. Zool. 2, 184, 

Le Macreuee Buf. Ois. ft 7M.pl. 16 

A native of the northern regions, but migrating southwards during winter down the European 

u 



i it; 

continent; breeds, like its congeners, on the coast in northern latitudes, making its nest near the 
water mark of grass, sea weed, and other rubbish, and near the time of hatching lines its nest with 
down from the body ; lays from six to ten white eggs. 

The trachea is very dissimilar from that of the two following species, having no bulb below 
the glottis, and the tube only enlarged to about twice its usual diameter in place of the inferior 
bulb ; the inferior larynx is similar to that of its congeners. The trachea of the female is similar 
to that of the male, but not quite so much enlarged; both sexes have the bronchia? large, and the 
tube acted upon by two pair of muscles, situated as in the velvet scoter. 



MELANITTA PERSPICILLATA. 

.1/(7. Mas. — Rostro aurantiaco, macula quadrangulari utrinque baso atro ; speculo nullo. 
.1/(7. Fern. — Brunnea, macula cinerea utrinque ad basin rostri. 

SURF DUCK. 

Male scoter, with the bill orange, a quadrangular patch on each side of the bill at the base ; 
no speculum. 

Fem. : brown duck, with a cinereous patch on each side at the base of the bill. 



IN. 



Length 19 

Bill li 

Tarsi 1| 





IN. 


Inner toe .... 


9 


Middle toe. . . . 


91 


Outer toe . . . . 


91 



Male: bill orange, with a four-cornered diamond-shaped patch of black on each side at the 
base of the upper mandible ; bill (raised at the base) short and thick ; plumage in general dead 
black, slightly glossed on the sides of the neck, with a patch of white on the occiput, and another 
elongated one down the back of the neck ; legs and toes orange, the webs dusky. 

Fem. : dusky brown, lighter on the neck and belly ; the raised portion of the bill not so pro- 
minent as in the male ; an obscure patch behind the base of the bill on each side, and another 
elongated one between it and the occiput. 

Anas perspicillata Linn. Syst. 1 . 261, 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 524. 

Oidemia perspicillata Steph. Sh. Zool. VI. 219. 

Eyton, Ms/. /.'. Brit. Birds, 81. 

Black or Surf Duck WUs. .Jin. Orn. viii. j>. I 1 ), pi. <>7. 

Black Buck Edw. Glea. p. 1 55. 

Macreuse a large bee Marchand Buff. Ois. 9. 2 1 1. 

Canard Marchand , . . . . Tenon. Man. 2. 853. 



1-17 

Common in America along the coast, from the river St. Lawrence to Florida, and has also been 
occasionally met with in the Orkney ami Shetland Isles; it almost exclusively inhabits the sea. 
The female of this species may he distinguished from that of O. nigra, which it somewhat resembles, 
by the superior length of the bill, and by the grey marking on the cheeks behind the eye. that 
colour in the above-mentioned bird being confined entirely to the throat. The following is Wilson's 
description of the trachea and anatomy of the bird: "On dissection the gullet was found to be 
gradually enlarged to the gizzard, which was altogether filled with broken shell-fish. There is a 
similar hard expansion at the commencement of the Mind pipe, and another much larger about 
three quarters of an inch above, where it separates into the two lobes of the lungs ; this last was 
larger than a Spanish hazel nut, flat on one side and convex on the other; the protuberance mi 
each side of the bill communicated with the nostrils, and was hollow." This description agrees with 
that of the rest of the genus in general character. 



MELAMTTA FUSCA. 

Mel. Ater, speculo et macula lunata suboculari albis. 

VELVET DUCK. 

Black duck, with the speculum and a lunate mark under the eye white. 

in-. ™- 

Length 20 Tarsi lj 

Bill 1| Middle toe 1^ 

Male: entirely deep velvet black, with a lunate spot and a mark under the eye white; bill 
and legs orange, the former with a tubercle at the base ; a space before it and the margins black ; 

webs black. 

Fern.: has the plumage above sooty black, below dirty grey; the tubercle at the base of the 

bill smaller than in the male. 

Young similar to the female. 

MelanUta fusca Bote in Br, km. Hand, der Wat. oiler, Vo. 

Deut. 905. 

Anas fusca Linn. Syst. I. 196 

<: in,l. Syst. i "•"; 
Lath l,ii>. <>>„ 2. 848. 

Oidi a '•'''■'"■ ltr '"- ■'"■ "'' 

Steph. Sh. Zoot. 12.2)6. 

Fehet Duek '<""• Arct - Zo ° l 2 - - ; '"' r ' '""' 

Grand ou double maereuse ""/ <J,S - ''■ ' '"' 

Trachea Linn. Irons, vol. 4, tab i 

and vol. 16, tab. 2\,fq. 2 



148 

Inhabits the arctic regions, migrating southwards in the winter, like several of the other known 
species of the genus, on both the American and European continents ; breeds in the neighbourhood 
of Hudson's Bay, on the borders of fresh water lakes, laying eight or ten white eggs. On the 
commencement of incubation the males, like those of the eider, form themselves in large flocks 
and desert the females. 

The trachea of this species is very curious: it has two bulbs on the tube., the lower one com- 
posed of tracheal rings firmly ossified together; the upper one, situated immediately below the 
glottis, instead of being composed like the lower one of tracheal rings, is separate from the trachea, 
which passes through it, communicating with it by an orifice on each side. The inferior larynx, 
unlike the diving ducks in general, is not bulbous ; the trachea is acted upon by two pairs of 
muscles, the first the usual sterno-tracheal ones, the other (furculo-tracheal) have their attach- 
ment a little before the middle bulb. For a figure of this see Vol. 15, Part 21. of the " Linnaan 
Transactions," illustrative of a passage by Mr. Yarrell on the organs of voice in birds, and our own 
plate. 



SOMATERIA SPECTABILIS. 

Sum. Mas. — Capite supra et oecipite cinereis; genis viridibus ; rostrum tubercula magna basali. 
Sum. Fem. — Sequenti similis, sed tubercula minore basali. 

KING DUCK. 

Male eider, with the head above and occiput cinereous ; the cheeks green ; the bill with a 
large tubercle at the base. 

Fem. eider, like the following species, but with a smaller tubercle at the base of the bill. 



Length 241 Inner toe 1 ^ 

Bill 1 l-Gth Middle toe 2g 

Tarsi 1 5-6ths Outer toe 2£ 



8 



Male : with the crown and occiput light cinereous grey ; cheeks light green ; round the base 
of the bill a band, and on the chin a V shaped mark black ; remainder of the neck, breast, anrl 
upper part of the back white, slightly tinged with purplish; lower part of the back, tail (pulls, 
tertiaries, scapulars, and under parts black ; tail and greater wing coverts white ; bill and legs red, 
the former with a large knob at the base, the top of which is covered with feathers. 

Fem. : in colour resembling the female of the common eider ; but can lie distinguished by the 
knob at the base of the bill being larger. 



149 

Somateria spectabilis Steph. Sh. Zool. 12. 229. 

Anas spectabilis Linn. Syst. 1 . 1 91. 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 907. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 845. 

Grey-headed Duck Edn: Glea. pi. 154. 

Anasfreti Hudsonis Briss. Orn. 365. 

King Duel- Penn. Arct. Zool. '2 JV, 481. 

Le Canard a tete grise Buff. Ois. 0. 258. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, rul. 15. tab. 1 5, c — d. 

Inhabits the same countries as the preceding; builds its nest on rocks and islands on the sea coast. 
formed of sea weed, laying five or six eggs scarcely to be distinguished from the preceding. By th< 
Greenlanders this bird is considered a delicacy, particularly the knob at the base of the bill. 

The trachea is not dissimilar in form from that of the common eider, but the enlargement a1 
the inferior larynx is smaller. We much regret we have been unable to obtain one for dissection. 



SOMATERIA ST. CUTHBERTI. 

Som. Mas. — Capite supra occipiteqne viridibus. 
Som. Fern. — Brunnea, transversim lineata atro. 

COMMON EIDER DUCK, 

Male eider, with the head above and occiput green. 
Fern, brown eider, transversely lineated with black. 

IN. IN 

Length 24 Inner toe 21 

Bill 2 l-6th Outer toe 2| 

Tarsi 2 Middle toe 2| 

Male : crown and occiput green ; back, wing coverts, and remainder of the bead ami m cl 
white, with a yellowish tinge ; quills and tail grey below, with the secondaries and rump black ; 
bill and legs black. 

Fem.: light .brown on tbe breast ; a lunule of black on each feather mar tbe tip dark brown, 
with the edges of the feathers lighter ;• belly obscure; lesser coverts, the back, tail, secondaries, and 
greater wing coverts grey brown; primaries dark brown, with the edges light grej brown; bill 
and legs black. 

S materia mollissima Steph. Sh. Zuul. 12. '-''2 1. 

Anas mollissima Linn, Syst. 1 . I • 

Gmel. Syst. I. 514 

Anas St. < 'uthberti Ran Syn, 14. 1. 

Eider— St. ' 'uthbert'e Eider Penn. Aret. Zool 2 -V 1 30 



150 

Ok a duret mi Eider Buff. 9. 1 03, t. 6. 

L ; Eider J'eill. En. Method. Om. 30. 119. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, vol. 1 '2. lab. 30, Jig. 1 . 

Like its congener, an arctic species, seldom seen south of the 55th degree N. L. hut in the 
parts within that on all three continents and the adjacent islands, where it breeds, building its nest 
of sea -weeds, and laving four eggs of a greenish colour. The trachea of the nude has the tube of 

nearly equal diameter throughout ; the inferior larynx swells outwards in front, and has on the left 
side a small bulb ; the left bronchia is the largest, and is dilated in the centre. 



POLYSTICTA STELLERI. 

Poly. Mas. — Albas, fronte occipiteque viridibus; collum cingulo atro. 

Poly. Fern. — Ferruginea, ntro et obscuro raaculato, tluabus maculis albis tectricibus. 

WESTERN DUCK. 

Male, white duck, with the forehead and occiput green, neck with a black collar. 
Fern. : ferruginous duck, marked with black and dusky ; with two white spots on the wing 
coverts. 

Length 17 inches, 

Male: chin, throat, fore part of the neck, and collar black ; a black stripe extends from the 
collar down the neck to the back, which is also black ; head sides and the upper part of the neck 
to the collar white ; forehead and nape greenish ; a black irregular patch behind the eyes, with a 
narrow band proceeding from it, and surrounding the orbits ; breast and sides light ferruginous ; 
vent and tail black, with the edges of the feathers lighter ; a humeral spot black ; quills dark 
brown ; tertiaries (very long) black edged with light brown. 

Fern. : ferruginous, marbled with dark and black, with two white spots upon the wing coverts, 
the feathers of which are straight and blackish. (Xtittall.J 

Anas dispar Gmel. Syst. 1 . 535. 

Anas Stelleri Gmel. Syst. 1. 518. 

Pall. Spic. Zool. v. /'. 3-3. tab. 5. 

Polysticta Stelleri Eytun. Hist. B. Brit. Birds. 79. 

Macropus Stelleri Nuttall, Om. 2. 451. 

Fuligula Stelleri Bona]). Syn. 344. 

First discovered by Steller in Kamschatka, and do not appear to stray far from their native place. 
A pair were shot in Oster Gothland, in Sweden, and are figured by Sparman. Another was killed 
in the British isles. Nothing is known of the anatomy of this beautiful species. 



151 



KAMPTORHYNCHUS LABRADORUS. 

Kamp. Mas. — Dorso, primariis, collo, fascia occipitali, subtusque, atris. 
Kamp. Fern. — Capite. mento, colloque cinereo ; dorso alisque obscuris. 

PIED DUCK. 

Male duck, with the back, primaries, neck, occipital fascia, and below, black. 
Fem. duck, with the head, chin, and neck cinereous ; the back and wing dark, 

IN. IN. 

Length 21± Outer toe 2| 

Bill If Middle toe 2\ 

Tarsi \\ Inner toe 2 

Male : head, neck, breast, scapulars, wing coverts, and secondaries white ; crown, a collar 
round the neck, belly, back, quills, and a streak on the occiput, black. 

Fem. : about one inch shorter than the male ; head, chin, and neck ashy grey ; back and wings 
brownish slate colour ; below ashy ; legs in both sexes deep brown, with the legs black ; bill black, 
with the base and edges of the mandibles orange. 

Fuligula Labradora Bona/). Syn. 337. 

Anas Labradora Wils. Am. Orn. pi. 69. Jiff. 6. 

Rhynchaspis Labradora Steplt. Sh. Zool. 12. 121. 

Pied Duck Penn. Arc/. Zool. 2. 282. 

Lath. Gen. Syn. iii. p. 497. 

Found most plentifully on the western side of the American continent, but occasionally also on the 
eastern. Nothing is known of its nidification. 

Wilson gives the following description of the trachea : " The windpipe of the male measures 
ten inches in length, and has four enlargements, viz. one immediately below the mouth at the 
interval of an inch ; it then bends largely down to the breast bone, to which it adheres by two 
strong muscles, and has at that place a third expansion ; it then becomes flattened, and before it 
separates into the lungs has a fourth enlargement much greater than the former, which is bony and 
round, puffing out from the left side. The bill of this species differs much in form from any in the 
family, being broad and thin at the tip, and having the lamella? more elongated. 



152 



CALLICHEN CARYOPHYLLACEUM. 

( \d. — Fuscum, capite colloque caryophyllaceis. 

PINK-HEADED POCHARD. 
Fuscous pochard, with the head and neck pink. 

IN. IN. 

Length 21 Bill 2| 

Head and neck bright pink, the latter with a black streak down the back ; lower part of the 
neck, flanks, back, and abdomen umber brown ; speculum ferruginous ; bill orange ; legs lead 
coloured. 

*Anas caryophyllacea Loth. lud. Orn. 2. 866. 

Pink-headed Duck Lath. Syn. Sup. 1 . 27G. 

Fu/ii/u/a caryophyllacea Steph. Sh. Zool. 12. 207. 

Inhabits several parts of India. Few specimens have been brought to this country : we only know 
of two at present existing ; one is in our collection, the other in the British Museum ; both were 
purchased at the sale of the late Col. Cobbe's collection. 



CALLICHEN RUFINUM. 

< \d. Mas. — Capite cristato, colloque anteriore castaneis ; subtus obscurus, lateribus albis. 
Cal. Fern. — Brunnea-cinerea, occipite obscuro. 

RED-CRESTED POCHARD. 

Male duck, with the head crested, and, together with the anterior part of the neck, chesnut ; 
below obscure, with the flanks white. 

Fern, cinereous brown duck, with the occiput dark. 



Lenyth 21 Outer toe 2| 

Bill 21 Middle toe 2| 

Tarsi 1| Liner toe If 



Male : head and upper part of the neck chesnut, the former crested ; lower part of the neck, 
breast, and belly dirty brownish black; sometimes with a few of the feathers slightly tipped with 



153 

white ; back light brown ; shoulders and a large spot on the flanks white ; tail feathers and 
quills cinereous ; rump black ; bill red, with the nail whitish horn colour ; legs and toes red ; 
webs black. 

Fem. : slightly smaller than the male ; light cinereous brown, with the crown darker ; the 
throat and sides of the neck dark cinereous ; bill and legs reddish brown. 

Callichen rufinus Brehin. Hand. der. Xat. oiler, Vo. Dent. 92-1. 

Anas rnfina Gmel. Sijst. 1. 541. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 870. 

A //as capite rufo major Rail Syn. 140. 

Canard s'/ffleur, Huppe Buff- Oia. 9. 282. 

Temm. Man. 2. 864. 

Red-crested Pochard Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 554. 

Merr/oides r/ifina Eyton, Hist. R. Brit. Birds. 7 7, 

Trachea Linn. Trans. Vol. 15, tab. 15, Jiff. 2. 

Inhabits the eastern portions of the north of Europe, and migrates to the Caspian Sea, to Hungary, 
Austria, and Turkey, and the great lakes of Switzerland ; never found on the sea. Such is the 
account Temminck gives of the bird before us ; and we are not aware that any thing besides is 
known concerning it, either as regards its breeding places or nest. Col. Sykes says it is rare in 
the Deccan. 

The trachea of this species has the inferior larynx similar to that of the true pochards ; the 
tube, however, differs much, having two flattened bulbs as in the Merganser ; the inferior one is 
placed nearer to the inferior larynx than in the genus Mergus. 



FULIGULA VALISNERIA. 

Fu. Mas. — Dorso albo atro undulato ; collo castaneo ; capistroque atro. 
Fu. Fem. — Capite, collo, pectoreque obscuris ; subtus alba. 

CANVAS-BACKED POCHARD. 

Male pochard, with the back white, barred with black ; neck chesnut ; collar black. 
Fem. pochard, with the head. neck, and breast obscure; below white. 



IN. 



Length 2\ Tarsi 1| 

Bill 2f Middle toe 8 i -5th 



w 



154 

Male : a band round the base of the bill ; top of the head, lower part of the neck and throat 
rump, and tail coverts, black ; head and neck reddish chesnut ; back, scapulars, wing coverts, tip 
of the secondaries, and flanks white, barred with narrow bauds of black and brown; primaries 
brown, darkest at their tips ; belly white ; bill and legs blackish brown. 

Fern, somewhat smaller than the male ; brown, with the sides of the head, neck, and breast 
ferruginous; scapulars and under plumage edged with the same; back and coverts brown, 
undulated with dirty white. 

Anas valisneria Wtls. 8. 103. pi. 70, /. 5. 

Fuligula valisneria Bonap. Syn. K. 338. 

Faun. Bo. Am. 2p, 151. 

Steph. Sh. Zool.p. 196. 

According to Dr. Richardson, this bird breeds in the fur countries from the 50th parallel to their 
most arctic limits. They arrive in the United States about the middle of October, frequenting the 
bay of Chesapeak, the sounds and bays of North Carolina, and the coast of Mexico. The canvas- 
backed duck may be distinguished from the following at once by its greater size and the superior 
length of the bill ; it is said to be most delicious food. Of this, however, we have considerable 
doubts : none of the other species contained in this genus or even among the Fuligulince are so. 



FULIGULA FERINA. 

Fit. Mas. — Capite, colloque, castaneis ; nullo speculo. 
Fu. Fem. — Brunnea; subtus alba. 

RED-HEADED POCHARD. 

Male pochard, with the head and neck chesnut ; the speculum wanting. 
Fem. brown : below white. 

IN. IN. 

Length 19 Breadth of nail 3-iGths 

Bill 1| Middle toe 2f 

Male : head and neck chesnut ; breast, upper part of the back, and rump, black ; remainder of 
the back, wing coverts, thighs, flanks, and scapulars, white undulated with black ; quills and tail 
grey ; bill and legs lead coloured, the former with the tip black. 

Fem. : rather smaller than the male ; head and neck reddish brown ; below white ; back 
similar to the male, but more obscure. 

Young similar to the female. 



155 

Fuliffula ferina Steph. Sh. Zool. 1 . 193. 

Anas ferina Linn. Syst. 1. 203. 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 530. 

Lath Ind. Orn. 2. 862. 
Anas ruf'a Gmel. Syst. 515. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 863. 

Ay thy a ferina Boie in Brehm. Hand, der Nat. alter, Vo. 

Beut. 920. 

A'yroca ferina Flem. Brit. An. 121. 

Pochard or Red-headed Pochard Penn. Arct. Zoo?. 2. 491. 

Millouin Buff. Ois. 216. 

Lc canard a cou roux Veill. En. JTeth. Orn. 1. 132. 

Le miUouin Veill. En. Meth. Orn. 1. 136. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, vol. 4, tab. XA.fig. 3 — 4. 

Common on the European and British coasts during winter. We have also received it from India. 
The sea appears to be its true habitation, but it is occasionally found frequenting fresh water, par- 
ticularly in the breeding season, when it makes its nest on the borders of rivers, laying twelve eggs 
of a greenish white colour, and generally within the arctic circle. 

The trachea of this and the two following species are so very similar that it can be only by a 
comparative description that we shall be able to make their distinctions understood. All have the 
tube of the trachea largest a little below the glottis ; it is slightly contracted about one-third of its 
length from that part, again expanded, and again contracted immediately above the inferior larynx. 
The bulb in all is flattened, and mostly membrinaceous, with merely just sufficient bone to stretch 
the membranes or tympanum. Two of the species, F. cristata and F. ferina, have a second 
swelling or small bulb entirely osseous on the right side, composed of enlarged rings of the lower 
part of the tube, through which the bronchia of that side passes ; this bulb and the whole of the 
tracheal apparatus is smaller, as well as the tube shorter, in F. cristata than in F. ferina. 

The trachea of F. marilla may be distinguished from the preceding by the inferior larynx being 
destitute of the bulb on the right side ; in other respects it is similar. 



FULIGULA AMERICANA. 

Fn. — Similis precedenti, sed rostrum ungue latiore. 

AMERICAN POCHARD. 
Pochard like the preceding, but the bill with the nail broader. 



IN. 



Length 19| Breadth of nail 

Bill If Tarsi l| 



156 

It is not without considerable diffidence that we have placed this bird as a distinct species from 
F. ferina. We have, however, examined a very large number of specimens, and find the following 

distinctions to hold good both in young and old birds. The bill in the present species is short er 
than in F. ferina, the nail broader, and the whole bird rather large)-. In form the nail is much 
more rounded at the sides, the bill more rounded immediately above the nostrils, and not so deeply 
channelled in the centre ; also broader measuring across the oilmen. 

Fidii/ula Americana Bonap. 

Fuliffula ferina Faun. Bo. Am. vol. 2. p. 152. 

Red-headed Pochard American author*. 

Inhabits North America. 



FULJGULA MARILLA. 

Fa. Mas. — Capite colloque nigris; dorso scapularibusque albis nigro lineato. 
Fk. Fein. — Brunnea, cingulo albo basim rostri cingente. 

SCAUP DUCK. 

Male duck, with the head and neck black ; the back scapulars white lineated with black. 
Fern, brown duck, with a white band surrounding the base of the bill. 



IN. IN. 



Length 20 Breadth of nail . . 3-10ths 

Bill \% Inner toe 1 9-lOths 

Tarsi 1± Middle toe 2| 

Male: head and neck black, with purplish inflections ; back and scapulars greyish white, 
finely and transversely lineated with black ; small wing coverts, primaries, and greater wing coverts 
deep brown, the former sprinkled with light brown ; secondaries (forming the speculum), belly, 
and flanks pure white ; lower part of the back and tail deep brown ; bill, head, and legs lead 
coloured ; feet the same, with the webs darker ; irides yellow. 

Fem. : nearly ecpial in size to the male ; brown, with a white band surrounding the base "I 
the bill, and expanding on the cheeks ; the back and scapulars sprinkled with specks of light blown 

Fuligula marilla S/ejih. Sh. Zool. 12. 198. 

Anas marilla Linn. Syst. 1 . 196. 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 509. 
Lath. Tnd. Orn. 2. 853. 

Fuligula Gesneri Bait Syn. 142. A. 6, 

. \ yroca marilla Flem. Brit. . In. 1 22. 

Scaup Duck Penn. Brit. Zool. 2. 275. 

Venn. Arct. Zool. 2. -193. 



157 

WTtite-faced Duck Son. Brit. Mis. t. 62. 

Le Mihuian Buff. Ois. 9. 22 1 . 

rcilL En. Method. Orn. 1. 152. 

Le canard a bee cercte Veitt. En. Method. Orn. 1 . 144. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, vol. 4, tab. \$,fig. o — 6. 

Met with in the same localities as Fuligula ferina, breeding near the arctic circle, and laying from 
fare to eight greenish eggs. 



FULIGULA AFFINIS. 

Fu. — Precedent! similis. sed rostro breviore et imgue angustiore armato. 

AMERICAN SCAUP. 

Duck like the preceding, but with the bill shorter and armed with a narrower nail. 

IN. IN. 

Length 19 Breadth of nail . . l-5th 

Bill 1 3-5ths Tarsi . ., 1 l-5th 

The above bird may be distinguished from the preceding in both sexes by the following com- 
parative marks : total length less ; bill shorter and not so broad ; nail much narrower, and not so 
much rounded at its sides ; tarsi shorter. 

Scaup Duck of .American authors. 
Fuligula affinis nobis. 

Inhabits North America. 

This is another bird of which we have entertained considerable doubts as to the propriety of 
making into a species : the above distinctions, however, appear through all the specimens we have 
examined to be constant. It is a curious fact that most of the water ducks* (Fuligulinee) of North 
America and Europe should be all distinct, while those land ducks (Anatina) and the mergansers 
(Mergince) should in a great measure be identical. We can only attribute it to their being en- 
dowed with a greater power of wing, and to the former ( Fuligulinee J following the sea coast in 
their migrations, and probably performing it by shorter flights, consequently being less liable, if I 
may be allowed the expression, to lose their road. 

It is, however, yet a question whether, if the theory we have advanced in the introductorj 
chapter of this work prove true, they will not eventually take the rank of varieties. 

* We have never examined the eiders of North America. 



! .IS 



FULIGULA RUFITORQUES. 

Fk. Mas. — Ater; subtus albus, lateribus cinereo undulatis ; capistro castaneo. 
Fit. Fern. — Bnmnea, fronte subtusque albis. 

RING-NECKED POCHARD. 

Male, black duck ; below white, the sides undulated with cinereous ; collar chesnut. 
Fern, brown duck, with the forehead and below white. 

IX. IN. 

Length 20| Inner toe If 

Bill 1| Outer toe 2 2-5ths 

Tarsi 1| Middle toe 2 3-loths 

Male : head purplish black ; back, neck, and breast purplish brown, glossed with green inflec- 
tions ; belly white ; flanks mottled with black ; tail grey brown ; primary coverts light grey ; bill 
and legs deep lead colour, the former crossed with a band of greenish behind the nail ; the base also 
surrounded with a narrow band of the same colour ; head slightly crested. 

Fern. : upper plumage dark brown, edged on the top of the head, scapulars, and breast with 
chesnut ; flanks chesnut ; bill, throat, and belly greyish white, speckled with brown ; vent dark 
brown. 

Young similar to the female. 

Fuligula nifitorqucs Bonap. Syn. p. 393. X. 34 1 . 

This species was found by Dr. Richardson in the fur countries during winter ; they frequent the 
rivers and estuaries of North America. 

The above bird appears to hold an intermediate station between F. cristata and F. marilla — 
the crest is smaller than in the former, and larger than in the latter. The female may be distin- 
guished from the female of the latter by the greater extent of the triangular space at the upper part 
of the base of the bill, aud from that of Cristata by its larger dimensions. 



159 



FULIGULA CRISTATA. 

Fit. lias. — Supra ater, capite cristato ; subtus albus. 
Fu. Fern. — Mare similis, sed minore crista. 

TUFTED POCHARD. 

Male pochard ; above black, with the head crested ; below white. 
Female similar to the male, but with the crest smaller. 



IN. 



IN. 






Length 13 Tarsi If 

Bill 2f Middle toe 2\ 

Male : head and crest (which is long) black glossed with violet ; back and upper part of the 
plumage glossy brown-black ; the scapidars undulated with narrow bars of whitish ; below, together 
with the speculum, white ; bill lead-coloured, with the nail black ; feet and legs black. 

Fern. : similar to the male, but not so glossy, and with the crest smaller. 

Fvligula cristata Staph. SJi. Zool. 12. 190. 

Atias cristata Baii Syn. 142 A. 

Anasfuligula Linn. Syst. 1. 207. 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 542. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 869. 

Aythya cristata Brehm. Hand. der. Mat. alter, Vo. Deut. 916. 

Anas scandiaca Gmel. Syst. 1 . 520. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 859. 

Tufted Duck Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 573. 

Lapmark Duck Penn. Arct. Zool 2. 576. 

MoriOon Buf. Ois. 9. 227. 

Le canard brun Buff. Ois. 9. 252. 

Le canard acrcte VeiU. En. Method. Orn. 1 . 143. 

A winter visitant in the British isles ; is found also in Asia, migrating northwards to breed. In 
America this bird is not found, its place being supplied by the preceding species. Nothing is 
known of its nidification. 

The trachea of the male in this species is furnished with two pair of muscles of voice, the fust 
the usual sterno-tracheal ones, the second pair are furculo-tracheal, diverging from the tube at the 
point where it penetrates the cavity of the chest, and inserted between the rami of the os furcatum 
at the point from whence they branch to unite with the coracoids. 



Kid 



NYROCA AUSTRALIS. 

Wy. — Proximo similis, sed majore. 

AUSTRALIAN POCHARD. 

Duck like the next, but larger. 



IN. 



Length 21 Outer toe 2* 

Bill 1| Middle toe 2f 

Tarsi 1| Inner toe 2 

So extremely like Nyroca Leucopthalmus, that as far as colouring goes one description will 
serve. The greater size, much larger and robust bill, and the bill being deep lead coloured, 
with a fascia of lighter across just behind the nail, as well as being destitute of the white spot 
on the chin, serve to distinguish it. 

A yroca Australia Gould, MSS. 

Our specimen was obtained from Mr. Gould, "ho received it from Australia. 



NYROCA LEUCOPTHALMUS. 

Ny. Mas. — Ferrugineus ; iridibus, speculo, mentoque macula, albis. 
Ky. Fern. — Mare similis, sed obscurior. 

WHITE-EYED DUCK. 

Male, ferruginous duck ; with the eyes, speculum, and patch on the chin, white. 
Fern, like the male, but darker. 



IN. 



Length 17 j Tarsi 1{ 

Exp. alee .... 26 Middle toe 2j 

Bill 1| Inner toe 1| 

Male: bright reddish chesnut, with a collar round the neck brown ; speculum, a spot on tin- 
chin, and under parts pure white ; the back and wings in some specimens inclining to brownish ; 
bill and legs lead coloured ; irides white. 

Fein. : similar, but with the colours more obscure. 



161 

Nyroca Leucopthalmus Mem. Brit. An. 121. 

. -Jnas Africana Gmel. Syst. 1 . 522. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 875. 
Anas .A yroca Gmel. Syst. 1 . 542. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 869. 
Anas f err Uffinea Gmel. Syst. 1 . 528. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 866. 

Aythya nyroca Bole in Brehm. Hand. der. .A at. alter, Vo. 

Dent. 918. 

African Teal Lath. Syn. 6. 555. 

Ferruginous Duel; Perm. Brit. Zool. 2. 60 1 . 

Rare as the occurrence of this bird is in the British isles, it is not uncommon in some parts of 
France, Holland, and Germany, and is found also in India and North America. Mons. Temminck 
informs us in his Manual that it constructs its nest by the sides of rivers and morasses, laying eight 
or ten white eggs slightly tinged with greenish. 

The form of the tube and inferior larynx in this species will be best understood by consulting 
the plate. It is acted upon by two pairs of muscles, the first the usual sterno-tracheal ones, the 
others furculo-tracheal. It differs from that of the foregoing genus in having the tube much more 
enlarged. 



NYROCA BRUNNEA. 

Ny. Alas. — Obscums, capite cristato ; genis eolloque inferiore castaneis ; dorso brunneo. 
Ny. Fern. — Mare similis, seel mento basoque rostri fascia cincta. genisque linca albis. 

BROWN POCHARD. 

Male, obscure duck, with the head slightly crested; the cheeks and lower parts of the neck 
chesnut ; the back brown. 

Fern, duck similar to the male, but with the chin and the base of the bill surrounded with a 
fascia ; and the cheeks with a line white. 



IN. 



Length 20 Outer toe 2 j 

Bill If Middle toe 2g 

Tarsi 1| Inner toe 1 { 

Male: sooty black, with the head slightly crested and glossy; flanks and back inclining to 
olive brown, and speckled with light brown and white; wing spot white ; cheeks deep chesnut, 
which colour extends fur some distance down the neck; chin Mack; hill blueish lend colour; 
lege ilir same. 

x 



162 

Fern. : as in the male, but with a circle round the base of the bill ; a line from the eye to the 
lower part of the throat, and the tips of all the feathers below white. 

Nyroca brunnea nobis. 

Specimens of this species are in our own collection, and were received from Southern Africa. 
Specimens are also in the South African Museum, brought home by Dr. Andrew Smith. 



HARELDA GLACIALIS. 

Ha. Mas. — Capite colloque albis ; macula auriculari brunnea omatus. 
Ha. Fern. — Brunnea; gutture macula alba ornata. 

LONG-TAILED DUCK. 

Male duck, with the head and neck white ; with a brown auricular patch. 
Fem. brown duck; the throat with a white patch. 

IN. IN. 

Length 22 Inner toe If 

Bill 11 Middle toe 2j 

Tarsi 1| Outer toe 2\ 

Male : head and neck white, with an auricular spot brown ; scapulars and tertiaries, abdomen, 
and outer tail feathers white ; breast, back, wing and middle tail feathers brown ; during summer 
the plumage becomes more obscure, and similar to that of the female ; middle tail feathers and 
tertiaries much elongated ; bill black, with a band of red ; legs and toes yellow, with the membranes 
dusky. 

Fem. : without the long tail and tertiary feathers ; dark brown, darkest on the back, the edge 
of the feathers lightest ; throat with a large patch, and the under parts, light grey. 

The young similar to the female. 

Harelda (/facialis , Step//. Sh. Zoo/. 12. 1 ?•">. 

Anas ff/acia/is Linn. Syst. 1. 203. 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 529. 

Lath. hid. Orn. 2. 864. 
Anas hyemalis , , Linn. Syst. 202. 29. 

Gmel. Sijst. 529. 29. 

Anas caudata harelda Rati Syn. 1 15. 1 4. 

Qucrquedu/aferroensis . , Briss. Orn. 6. 466. 

Anas /onfficauda is/andica Briss. Orn. 7. 299. 

Long-tai/ed Buck Penn. Brit. Zoo/. 2. 599. 



163 

Canard a longequeue Buff, Ois. 9. 202. 

Canard de midon Buff. PI. Enl. 1008. 

VeiU. En. Method. Om. 1. 129. 

Sarcelle deferroe Buff. Ois. 9. 278. 

L'Angletaske Vail. En. Method. Om. 1. 134. 

Trachea Mont. Om. Diet. Sup. jig. 12. 

Linn. Trans, vol. 4, tab. 30, fig. 3—4. 

An inhabitant of the arctic regions, not migrating farther south than the northern part of Scotland. 
Breeds on the sea coast, making its nest of grass and sea weed; lays generally about eight eggs of 
a blueish colour. We have given an account of the trachea under the genus Harelda. 



CLANGULA HISTRIONICA. 

Clang. Mas. — Capite atro ; macula utrinque ante oculari auricularique albis. 
Clang. Fem. — Brunnea ; capite maculis albis obscuris ornatis mare similibus. 

HARLEQUIN DUCK. 

Male duck, with the head black ; a spot on each side before the eyes and on the ears white. 
Fem. brown duck, Avith marks on the head similar to the male, but obscure. 





.. 161 




...21 


Bill 


1 




... If 




•• H 


Middle toe 


.... 2| 



Male : crown black ; between the base of the bill and the eye is a triangular patch of white, 
w ith the small end towards the bill, from the upper corner of which a streak varying in intensity 
proceeds over the eye to the occiput ; back of the neck black, with an elongated white streak on 
each side ; throat and upper part of the neck shining violet black ; an auricular patch white ; collar 
and a streak extending nearly from the point of one wing round the front of the breast to that of 
the other, wing coverts, and tertiaries white ; breast, belly, and vent brown ; tail and wings dark 
umber brown ; wing spot purple ; bill and legs lead coloured, tipped with red ; irides hazel. 

Fem. : brown, with the margins of the feathers paler ; a spot between the base of the bill and 
the eye, and an auricular one, whitish ; belly and vent white blotched with brown ; rather smaller 
than the male. 

Clangula Histrionica Stcjdt. Sh. Zool. 1. 180. 

Eyton, Hist. It. Brit. Birds, 84. 
Anas Histrionica Linn. Syst. L. 204. 

Gmel. $y*t. 1. 534. 



164 

Anas minuta Linn. S//st. 1 . 20 1. 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 534. 

Anas torquata Gmel. Syst. 1 . 51 I. 

Harlequin Puck Perm. Aret. Zool. -J. 19 I. 

Dusk;/ and spotted Duck Edic. (Ilea. pi. 99. 

Le canard a collier dc terra neuee B"ff- Ois. 9. 250. 

( 'anard a collier ou histrion , Temm. . Man. 2. 878. - 

La Sarcelle brun el blanche Buff. Ois. 9. 287. 

Le canard de terre neuve J'eill. En. Method. Orn. 

Le canard histrion Veill. En. Method. Orn. 1 . 1 Hi. 

Inhabits the northern regions of both the American and European continents. A few specimens 
have been occasionally hilled in Orkney and the northern islands; migrates northwards to breed; 
the female lays ten white eggs. 



CLANGULA ALBEOLA. 

Clang. Mas. — Capite eolloque atris; macula alb& suboculari occipite extendente. 

( 'Ian;/. Fem. — Atra-tusca, alba macula genis. 

SPIRIT DUCK. 

Male duck, with the head and neck black ; a white patch extending below the eye to the 
occiput. 

Fem. sooty black duck, with a white patch on each side of the head. 

IN. IN. 

Length 16 Tarsi 1 § 

Bill 1| Middletoe 

Male : head and upper part of the neck rich purple green, with a large white patch extending 
from below the eye to the occiput ; back and scapulars black ; tail and quills hoary black ; greater 
wing coverts white; secondaries black, above which is another white patch formed by the tertiary 
coverts ; legs and toes orange ; webs black ; bill lead coloured. 

Fem. : smaller than the male : head and plumage dark blackish brown ; the fore part of the 
neck side of the breast, flanks, and vent feathers blackish grey ; breast and belly white tinged with 
brownish orange ; the white band on the ears and occiput much narrower than in the male, and 
obscure ; lesser coverts and scapulars blackish brown ; bill and feet brownish. 



165 

Anas albeola Linn. Syst. 1. 199. 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 517. 

Lath, Ind. Orn. 2. 866. 
Anas Sucephala Linn. Syst. 1 . 200. 

Gmel. Syst. 1.521. 

Anas hyberna Briss. Orn. 6. 349. 

Querquedula Ludoviriana Briss. Orn. 6. 349. 

Anas rustica Linn. Syst. 1 . 201 . 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 524. 

Sarcelle de la Caroline Buff. Ois. 9. 286. 

Sarcelle blanche et noir on la religeuse B'ff- Ois. 9. 284. 

Petit canard a grosse fete Biff. Ois. 9. 249. 

Buffle-headed Duck Catesb. Carol. I. pi. 95. 

Penn. Arct. Zool. 2. 489. 

Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 532. 
Little brown Duck Catesb. Carol. I. pi. 98. 

Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 534. 
Le canard Lhoora Veill. En. Method. Orn. 1. 134. 

An abundant species on the fresh -water lakes of arctic America, where nidification is perfected, 
their nests are made in hollow trees contiguous to water. During autumn and winter they are 
found over a considerable portion of North America. 



CLANGULA BARROVII. 

Clang. Mas. — Capite colloque superiore atro ; genis lunata fascia ornatis. 
Clang. Fern. — Vulgari similis, sed singulo albo collo. 

BARROW'S DUCK. 

Male clangida, with the head and upper part of the neck black ; the cheeks ornamented with a 
lunate fascia. 

Fern, similar to the female of Clangida vulgaris, but with a white collar. 



IN. 



Length 22±. Middle toe 2± 

Bill 1 7-i2dis Outer toe 1 5-i2ths 

Tarsi 1 7-l2tha 

.Male : head and upper part of the neck black, with purple and metallic green inflections ; a 
crescent-shaped patch from the gape to the crown ; below, lesser wing coverts, tips of the scapulars. 
and greater coverts, together with the outer secondaries, white ; lateral tail coverts brown ; bill lead 
coloured ; legs and feet orange, the webs black. 



16G 

Fem. : very similar to the female of Clan. Vulgaris, but rather larger; with a white ring 
round the middle of the neck, and the back of a darker colour. 

Clangula Barromi Faun. Bo. Am. 2. H5. 

Gould, Birds of Europe. 

The true habitat of this species is North America, in the neighbourhood of the Rocky Mountains, 
where it was discovered by Dr. Richardson. A single individual has since been obtained from 
Iceland by T. C. Atkinson, Esq. and a female is in our own collection. Brisson, in his " Orni- 
thologie," pi. 37, fig. 2, vol. 6, has figured this bird in mistake for Clangula vulgaris, quoting for 
it the synonyms of Willoughby (whose plate is that of C. vulgaris) and of Linnteus. The specimen 
from which his description and plate is taken was in the collection of M. de Reaumur ; he does 
not, however, say from whence obtained. 



CLANGULA VULGARIS. 

Clang. Mas. — Alba macula rotunclata suboculari et speculo albo. 
Clang. Fem. — Capite colloque superiore brunneis. 

COMMON GOLDEN EYE. 

Male duck, with a white spot under the eye, and wing spot white. 
Fem. duck, with the head and upper part of the neck brown. 

IN. IN. 

Length 19 Tarsi 1^ 

Bill 1| Middle toe 2 7-10ths 

Male : head and upper part of the neck green with purple inflections ; remainder of the neck, 
belly, breast, greater wing coverts, and a spot below the eye, white; back, rump, lesser wing and 
tail coverts black ; quills and tail black ; legs, toes, and bill lead coloured ; hides golden yellow. 

Fem. : with the head and upper part of the neck brown ; back, wings, and tail dusky slate 
colour ; wing spot white ; bill lead coloured, with a yellowish band round the nail. 

Anas clangula Linn. Syst. 1 . "201. 

Gtnel. Syst. 1. 523. 

Baii Syn. 142 A. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 8C7. 
Anas glaucivn Linn. Syst. 1 . 401 . 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 525. 

Lath. Ltd. Orn. 2. 868. 

Le garrot Buff. Ois. 9. 222. 

Clangula vulgaris Flem. Brit. An. 120. 



167 

Clangula chrysopthahnus Sfeph. Sh. Zoo/. 12. 182. 

Canard garrot Temm. Man. 2. 870. 

Golden eye Venn. Arct. Zool. 2. 276. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, vol. 4, tab. 15, fig. 1 — 5. 

Breeds in the arctic regions, but regularly migrates southwards during winter ; is found commonly 
in Europe, frequenting both fresh and sea water, but more commonly the latter ; during the breed- 
ing season, however, they are stated by travellers to frequent exclusively fresh water, making their 
nest on the shores of lakes and rivers in the fur countries, and laying from seven to ten white eggs. 
The trachea has a large contractile bulb on the tube ; the inferior larynx is not very dissimilar 
from that of the Mergansers ,• the tube is acted upon by two pairs of muscles of voice, the first of 
which are the usual sterno-tracheab ones, the second pair (which are furculo-tracheal) diverge from 
the tube at a little distance below the contractile bulb,, and have their insertion on the rami of the 
os furcatum near the middle of eacb. 



CLANGULA AMERICANA. 

Clang. Mas. — Clangula vulgari similis, sed majore. 

AMERICAN GOLDEN EYE. 

Male clangula, similar to the common golden eye, but larger. 



IN. 
I 

2 



Length 21 7am 

Bill \\ Middle toe ...... 2f 

Very like the common golden eye of Europe, but larger, with the spot at the base of the bill 
more ovate, and the bill longer, broader, and stouter. 

( langula Americana Bonap. MSS. 

Golden Eye Nutt. Orn. 2. 111. 

It is even now doubtful whether or not many of the birds of Nortb America are distinct from 
(.in own. There is, however, between many of them found enough of distinction for the practised 
eye of an ornithologist to say with certainty, this bird is North American — this European. 



168 



THALASSORMS LEUCONOTUS. 

Thai. — Corpore colloque ferrugineis ; illo atro transversim fasciato, dorsoque imo albo. 

FASCIATED DUCK. 

Duck, with the body and neck ferruginous ; the former transversely fasciated with black, ami 
the lower part of the back white. 

IN. IN. 

Length 18 Outer toe 2^ 

Bill 1| Middle toe 2| 

Tarsi 1| Inner toe 2 

Head, upper part of the back, and flanks black ; the tip and a bar across each feather dull 
brown; wing coverts black barred with ferruginous; neck light yellowish brown; belly rather 
darker ; back and rump dirty white ; tail coverts and tail black, the former tipped with light 
brown ; feet and bill black ; tail short ; very old birds have a whitish spot on each side behind the 
base of the bill, and another smaller one on the chin. 

( languid leuconotus Smith. Cat. S. . J/ric. Mus. 

In the museum of the Zoological Society, said to have been received from the Cape of Good Hope. 
The bill in this species approaches in form to that of Biziura. Since we described the above, 
under another name, we have seen the specimens brought home by Dr. Smith from the ( 'ape, and 
now exhibiting. As our specific appellation was not published, Ave have therefore adopted his. 



BIZ1URA LOBATA. 

Biz. Mas. — Ater, albo transversim et minute fasciatus; alis brunneis; mandibula inferiore caruncula 
compressa. 

Biz. Fern. — Mare similis. seel caruncula caret. 

LOBATED DUCK. 

Male, black duck, minutely and transversely lineated with white ; wings brown ; inferior 
mandibles with a compressed caruncle. 

Fern, duck similar to the male, but without the caruncle. 

IN, IN 

Length 33 Liner toe 3 

Bill If Outer toe 3| 

Tarsi 2 Middle toe 3| 





./ ... Kteko 



Domwuca fern 



... 



169 

Male : crown and upper part of the back of the neck black, occasionally speckled with whitish ; 
back, lower part of the neck, flanks, rump, and under tail coverts deep glossy black, each feather 
transversely streaked with one or two narrow lines of white or light brown ; wings and tail sooty 
black; remainder grey or silvery white ; bill and legs lead coloured, the former with a large com- 
pressed caruncle on the lower mandible. 

Fern. : smaller than the male, but in colouring similar ; without the caruncle. 

Biziura Nova Bollandioe Steph. Sh. Zool. 12. 222. 

Hydrolases lobatus Temm. PL En. .A ". G8. 

Anas lobata Sham. Wat. Mis. 8. pi. 255. 

Lobated Duel Lath. Gen. S,jn. Sup. 2. p. 349. 

Le canard earoncule VeM. En. Method. Orn. 356. 

All that is known of the habits of this curious bird is contained in a short notice by Lieut. Breton, 
K. N. inserted in the Zoological Proceedings for 1834, p. 19, from which we extract the following: 
" He (Lieut. Breton) stated that these birds are so extremely rare that he saw only three of them 
during his various excursions, which extended over twelve hundred miles of country. He has 
never heard of any instance in which more than two were seen together. They are only met with 
on the rivers and in pools left in the otherwise dry beds of streams. It is extremely difficult to shoot 
on account of the readiness with which they dive. The instant the trigger is drawn the bird is 
under water." 



ERISMATURA MACCOA. 

Eris. — Bnmnea, gutture lineaque infra oculos albis. 

MACCOA DUCK. 
Brown duck, with the throat and a streak below the eye dirty white. 



Length 14 Tarsi If 

Bill 1| Outer toe 2£ 

Back black barred with ferruginous ; flanks brown barred with the same ; tail brown ; head 
dark brown, undulated with ferruginous ; chin and streak from the bill below the eye to the occiput 
whitish grey ; below silvery grey undulated with brown ; bill lead coloured ; legs with a tinge of 
greenish ; speculum none. 

Oxyura Maccoa Smith, < 'at. S. Afric. Mua. 

A specimen is in our collection, brought home from the Indian Isles. Except from the difference in 
locality, we should have supposed this bird to have been the young of Ostywra rubida. Since 
writing the above we have seen a specimen brought home by Dr. Smith, and have adopted his name. 



N 



170 



ERISMATURA FERRUGINEA. 

Eris. — Ferrugmea, capite atro. 

FERRUGINOUS DUCK. 
Male, ferruginous duck, with the head black. 

IN. IN. 

Length 17| Tarsi 1| 

Bill lg Centre toe 2| 

Male: deep ferruginous, with the head and upper part of the neck black; quills and tail 
brown ; vent and belly silvery ash, tinged with ferruginous. 

Closely allied to Erismatum Australis. The only specimen we have seen is in the British 
Museum, obtained from Chili. 



ERISMATURA LEUCOCEPHALA. 

Eris. 'Sins. — Vertice atro ; subtus castaneus; reliquo albo. 
Eris. Fem. — Mare similis, sed coloribus obscuris. 

WHITE-HEADED DUCK. 

Male duck, with the crown black ; remainder of the head white ; below chesnut. 
Fem. similar, but with the markings obscure. 

IN. IN- 

Length 17 Outer toe 2f 

Bill If Centre toe 2| 

Tarsi 1| Inner toe 2| 

Male: crown black; remainder of the bead pure white ; body silvery brown, tinged with 
ferruginous on the breast, flanks, and back, on the latter irrorated with black ; tail and wing;, 
brown ; no wing spot ; legs and bill lead coloured ; the latter more taper at the base than is usual 
in the genus. 

Fem. : similar to the male, but with the colours not so distinct. 

Anas leucocepkala Gmel. Syst. 1 . 51(3. 

Lath. Ind. On/. '.!. 858. 

Undina leucocephala Gould, Birds of Europe. 

. inas mersa Gmel. Syst. 1 . 521 1 



171 

White-headed Duck Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 478. 

Ural Duck Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 478. 

La Macreuse de Bussie Veill. En. Method. Orn. 1. 140. 

Le canard Ural J'eiU. En. Method. Orn. 1. 127. 

Inhabits the eastern portions of Europe ; occasionally found during migration in Austria and Hungan 



ERISMATURA RUBIDA. 

Eris. Mas. — Bnmnea, capite supra, fronte, et occipite atris ; genis mentoque albis. 
Er/s. Tern. — Mare similis, sed coloribus obscuris. 

RUDDY DUCK. 

Male, brown duck, with the upper part of the head, the forehead, and occiput black; cheeks 
and chin white. 

Fem. like the male, but with the colours less distinct. 

IX. IX. 

Length 15 Outer toe 2\ 

Bill If Middle toe 2± 

Tarsi 1 \ Inner toe 2 

Male: crown, head, and back of the neck black; back and tail brown dotted with whitish : 
wings brown ; throat and cheeks white : flanks, breast, and lower surface also white tinged more or 
less with ferruginous ; bill lead coloured ; legs and feet brown ; hides hazel. 

Fem. : similar to the male, but with the back part of the head and neck inclining to brown ; 
the throat and cheeks light slate colour. 

Young similar to the female. 

Erismatura rubida Bona}). Cat. Am. and Eur op. Birds. 

Anas rubida H'ds. Am. Orn. 8 p. 128, pi 7 \,fig. 

FuliguJa (oxyura) rubida Bonap. Syn. p. 390. N. 336. 

Fuligula rubida Faun. Bo. Am. 2. 455. 

Gymnura rubida Vutt. Man. Orn. 2. 42(7. 

Inhabits North America, retiring northwards to breed; frequents fresh water in preference to the 
sea, according to Nuttall. When swimming they have a habit of carrying the tail so erect thai it 
appears of the same height with the head and neck. 



172 



ERISMATURA AUSTRALIA 

Eris. Mas. — Capite colloque atris : corporc castaneo. 

Eris. Fern. — Ferruginea, t'asciata et punctata atro et brunneo. 

AUSTRALIAN DUCK. 

Male cluck, with the head and neck hlack ; the hody chesnut. 

Fern, ferruginous duck, fasciated and punctated with hlack and brown. 

IN. IN. 1". 

Length 15 Bill ]g Tarsi 1J 

Male: with the head, throat, and neck hlack; below with the back dark chesnut; tail, wings, 
and rump black, the latter irrorated with ferruginous ; under tail coverts silvery grey ; bill, feet, 
and legs lead coloured. 

Fern. : brown ferruginous, fasciated transversely with black and dark brown ; throat light 
hrown ; under surface silvery grey, slightly tinged with brown ; tail and wings hrown. 

Oxyura Australis, Gould Zool. Proc. 1 SSii, t >. x.">. 

Inhabits Australia. First sent to England by Lieut. Breton from Swan River. The specimens 
are in the collection of the Zoological Society. 



ERISMATURA DOMIMCA. 

Eris. Mas. — Femigineus, capite anteriore atro ; speculo albo. 

Eris, Fern. — Brunnea, lineis albis infra et per oculos, occipite tendentibus : speculo mare simili. 

DOMINICAN DUCK. 

Male, ferruginous duck, with the head anteriorly black ; the wing spot white. 
Fern, brown duck, with a white streak through the eve and another below it, extending to the 
occiput ; wing spot as in the male. 

IN. !>•■ 

Length 13| Oxter toe If 

Bill 1± Middle toe 2 

Tarsi 1 Inner toe 1 3 

Male: fore part of the head sooty black ; the hind part of the neck, hack, scapulars, flanks, 
and rump ferruginous ; wing coverts brown ; quills ashy black, with the wing spot white ; tail 






173 

black ; throat, streak through the eye, and another below it, light ferruginous ; bill and legs lead 
coloured. 

Fem: with the back deep brown ; flanks light brown, barred with darker; head deep brown, 
slightly undulated with ferruginous ; under parts silvery grey, undulated with brown ; a dusky 
white streak passes through the eye, and another below it ; wing spot white ; bill lead coloured ; 
legs brown. 

^4nas Dominica Linn. Syst. 1 . 201 . 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 521. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 87-1. 

Ftrfigula Dominica Stejih. Sit. Zool. 12. 203. 

Querqueilula Dominicensis Briss. Orn. 6. 472. 

Anas SjMuosa Gmel. Syst. 1 . 522. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 874. 

»4nas Dominica P. Max. Bat. Nat. Braz. 4. 938. 

Sarcelle etc la Guadaloupe Buf. PI. Enl. 938. 

Sarcclle a queue epineme de Cayenne Buff. PL Enl. 968. 

Spinous-tailed Duck Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 554. 

A female specimen is in the British Museum. Both male and female are in our own collection, 
obtained from Jamaica. It also, according to Prince Maximilian, inhabits Brazil. 



MERGUS MERGANSER. 

Mer. Mas. — Capite colloque superiore viridibus ; scapularibus primoribusque atris ; corpore subtus albo. 
Mer. Fem. — Capite rufo ; corpore subtus cinerascenti-albo. 

COMMON MERGANSER. 

Male mer. with the head and upper part of the neck green ; the scapulars and primaries black ; 
below white. 

Female, with the head rufous ; below ashy white. 

IN. IN- 

Length 29 Tarsi 1| 

Bill 2 Middle toe 2£ 

Male: head and neck deep glossy green, the former crested; upper part (if the back and 
scapulars black ; lower part of the- back, tail, and secondary coverts, hoary grey ; quills and 
secondaries brown; tertiaries white, beautifully edged with black ; bill red, with the margins and 
culmen black; legs, feet, and webs, orange; hides hazel. 

Fem.: head and upper part of the neck rufous brown, the former crested on tin occiput; 
throat white ; lower part of the neck, breast, flanks, and thighs, whitish ash; belly and abdomen 
yellowish white : above dark asli ; feet, bill, and legs as in the male, but not so bright. 

Young similar to the female. 



174 

Mergus Merganser Linn. Sytt. 1. 208. 

Raii Syn. 1. 34. A. 1. 

Gmel.Syst. 1. 544. 

Briss. Orn. 6.231. t. 32. 

ZerfA. /«<*. 0/-«. 2. 828. 

//'*■. .:/«. 0/-w. pi. C8. 

Merganser Ran Steph. Slum- Zool. 12. 161. 

Mergus castor Linn. Syst. 1 . 209. 

Gmel. Syst, 1. 545. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 829. 

Mergus nificapillus Gmel. Syst. 1 . 545. 

Mergus scrratus longirostris Rail Syn. 1.34. A. 2. 

Gooseander Perm. Arct. Zool. 2 N. 165. 

Lath. Syn. 0. 418. 

Dundiver Perm. Arct. Zool. 2. 465. 

Le Harle Buff. Oia. 8. 267. 

femeUe Buff. Ois. 8. 236. 

Le Biecre J'eill. En. Method. Orn. 1. 103. 

Le Harle Vettt. En. Method. Orn. 1. 101. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, col. 15, tab. \5,fig. h. 

Inhabits the neighbourhood of the arctic circle, breeding in Iceland, Siberia, Kamschatka, and 
the fur countries, making its nest of grass near the water, and laying from ten to fourteen eggs of a 
yellowish colour. During winter, in hard weather, these birds migrate southwards, and are found 
over considerable portions of the continents of Europe, Asia, and America. We have also received 
them from Peru. 

The trachea in the male has two enlargements on the tube, each of which are compressed, and 
composed of alternating semi-lunar plates. 

The inferior larynx is very large and strong, projects most on the left side, but slightly before. 
behind, and on the right side. The bronchia? are far apart, the left the largest ; it does not differ 
in form from that of M. serrator, which we have figured. 






175 



MERGUS SERRATOR. 

Mer. Mas. — Capite cristato, hoc colloque superiore viridibus ; collo inferiore capistro albo. 
Mer. Fern. — Capite cristato, hoc colloque superiore runs, collo inferiore cinereo; ventre albo; speculoque 
fascia atra diviso. 

RED-BREASTED MERGANSER. 

Male mer. with the head crested, and the upper part of the neck green ; the inferior part with 
a white collar. 

Fern. mer. with the head crested, together with the upper part of the neck rufous ; the inferior 
part cinereous ; helow white ; speculum divided hy a black bar. 





IN. 




IN. 




.. 20 


Inner toe . . 


.. 2 


Bill 


■• 2| 




.. 2f 




•• 21 




.. 21 



Male : head and upper part of the neck glossy greenish black, the former crested ; middle of 
the neck with a white collar; lower part of the neck and breast ferruginous, spotted with black; 
upper part of the back, scapulars, and sides of the breast black ; wing coverts white, with a black 
bar across the larger ones ; tail grey ; flanks and lower part of the back white, undulated with 
narrow black lines ; below white ; irides reddish ; bill orange, with the culmen black. 

Fern. : head and crest brown ; remainder of the neck greyish brown ; secondaries, abdomen, 
and lower part of the breast white. 

Young similar to the female. 

Mergus serrator Linn. Sys/. 1. 208. 

Gmel. Syst. 1. 511 
Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 829. 

Mergus serra/or leucomelas Gfmel. Sys/. 1 . 546. 

Mergus eerra '.us Gmcl. Syst. 1 . 546 A. 

— — nig, r Gfmel. Syst. 1 . 546 B. 

crista/ us Briss. Orn. 6. 237. 2. /. 23. 

Red-breasted Merganser Perm. Arc/. Zoo/. 2. 466. 

Lath. Gen. Syn. 6. 423. 

Li Harle, J/ v>J ,e Buff. Ois. 8. 273. 

Harle a manteau noir Stiff. Ois. 8. 277. 

Harle, Huppe | Tenon. Man. Orn. 2. p. 884. 

Trachea Linn. Trans, vol. 1, tab. 16, fig. 1 — 2. 

Inhabits nearly the same countries as the preceding; but docs not extend so far southwards ; breeds 
in the neighbourhood of the arctic circle and in the highlands of Scotland, on the borders of fresh 
water lakes, making its nest of dried herbage lined with down stripped from itsownbodj , laya 
from eight to twelve eggs of a brownish yellow colour. 



176 

The trachea in the male of this species differs from that of the last, in having only one enlarge- 
ment on the tube (in other respects similar), and in the left bronchia being much larger than the 
right. The comparatively smaller size of this bird at once distinguishes it from the preceding. 



MERGUS BRAZILIANUS. 

Met. — Niger, capite colloque viridi-eeneis. 

BRAZILIAN MERGANSER. 
Black merganser, with the head and neck brassy green. 

IN. IN. IN. 

Length of bill 2 Tarsi If Middle toe 2 {, 

Merganser, with the head and neck glossy green ; the occiput with a long pendent crest the 
same ; the whole of the back, tail, and wings sooty black ; wing spot white, divided by a black 
streak ; under surface and the lower part of the neck brown, the latter, with the flanks, minutely 
spotted and barred with white ; the abdomen broadly so ; bill black ; legs and feet orange, with 
the webs dusky. 

Mergus Braxilianus Fail. Gal. des Oiseaux, 2. 209. 

Le Hark' a hint hrins Diet, d' His/. Nat. 2d edit. 14. 222. 

In the collection of the Zoological Society; evidently a young bird. 



/ / 



MERGUS CUCULLATUS. 

Mer. Mas. — Capite atro cristato: crista alba, et macula triangulari notata. 
Mer. Fern. — Brunnea, capite cristato ; gutture albo. 

HOODED MERGANSER. 

Male mer. with the head crested black ; crest with a large triangular patch of white. 
Fern, brown merganser, with the head crested ; the throat white. 

IN. IN. 

Length 19 Inner toe 1^ 

Bill If Middle toe 2 

Tarsi 1£ 

Male : head and neck glossy black, with purple and green inflections, the former largely 
crested with long silky feathers ; crest marked with a fan-shaped patch of white, the small end 
placed towards the eye, a little behind it, and extending backwards nearly to the edge of the hood ; 
breast and under surface white, the former with two bands of velvet black, tapering to a point in 
front of the wings ; quills and tertiaries deep brown, the latter with white shafts and dark edges ; 
tail dark In-own ; back black ; flanks dark chesnut, with narrow transverse undulated bars of black 
or brown ; irides yellow ; bill red. 

Fem. : with the crest smaller than in the. male, and the feathers not so numerous ; neck, back. 
head, crest, and wings umber brown, varying in intensity ; throat white ; lower part of the neck 
light umber brown ; belly white ; feet and legs in both sexes red. 

Young similar to the female in colouring, but the males may be distinguished by the crest 
being larger. 

Mergus cucullatus Linn. Syst. 1. 207. 

Ghtnel. Syst. 1. 544. 

Lath. Lid. Orn. 2. 830. 

Eyton, Hist. B. Brit. Birds, 75. 

And. Am. Orn. 3. 246. 

Mergus fuscus Lath. Lid. Orn. 2. 802. 

Hooded merganser Perm. Arct. Zool. 2. 407. 

Lath, Gen. Syn. 6. 420. pi. ci. 

Bound-crested Luck Catesb. Carol. 1 . pi. 9 1 . 

Brown merganser Bom. Arct. Zool. 2d Sup. 7 I 

/.'■ Harle couronne B ".(?'• Ois. 8. 280. 

I',;//. En. Method. Orn. 1. 103. 
Le Harle a queue fourchue Veill. En. Method. Orn. 1. 105. 

Rare in Europe; one or two specimens have, however, been killed in the British isles. 
Nmth America is its true habitat, over the whole of which it appears during winter to be 
found; as spring approaches, the greater portion of them retire to the ninth, though some remain 
and breed in Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and the intermediate district. It builds in holes of trees 
and lo.ks where it can find them ; but in districts devoid of such localities builds on the ground on 
the borders of lakes, laying from six to ten white eg| 

7. 



178 



MERGUS ALBELLUS. 

Mer. Mas. — Supra albus, genia et occipite atria : capite cristate 
Mer, Fem. — Subtus alba, genis et occipite runs: capite vi\ cristato. 

WHITE SMEW. 

Male mer. above white, with the cheeks and occiput black ; head crested. 

Fem. mer. below white, with the cheeks and occiput red ; the head slightly crested. 

IN. IN. 

Length 17 Outer toe 2 

Bill If Middle toe 2| 

Tarsi 1^ Inner toe If. 

Male : above and below white, with a large patch on each side of the head, and another one 
down the back of the neck, black ; crest white; on the upper part of the breast on each side a bar 
of black, not meeting in front; coverts, primaries, and secondaries black; scapulars white, edged on 
their outer webs with black ; tail, rump, and upper tail coverts grey ; bill and legs lead coloured. 

Fem. : throat, neck, belly, and abdomen white ; the bi-east, back, tail, and upper tail coverts 
ash coloured ; wings grey, with the outer webs of the scapulars white. 

Young similar to the female. 

Mergus aJhellus Linn. Syst. 1 . 209. 

Gmel. Syst. I. 517. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 831. 

Steph. Sh. Zonl. 12. 157. 

7/'i/s. Am. Orn. 8. 136. pi. 71, fit/. ', 
Mergus minutus Linn. S//st. 1 . 209. 

Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 832. 

Mergus Asiaticus Gmel. Syst. 1 . 548. 

stellatus Briss. Orn. 6. 252. pi. 0. 

Smew Perm. Arct. Zool. 2. 559. 

Lath. Gen. Syn. G. 128. 

Blue merganser Pen//. Arct. Zool. 2. Sup. 71. 

Le petit harle oh lapiette Bntf. Ois. 8. 275. 

Lepiette Feill. En. Method. Orn. 1 . 104. 

Le harle ctoile Puff- Ois. 8. 278. 

Peill. En. Method. Orn. 1. 105. 
Trachea , Linn. Trans, ml. 4, tab. 10, Jig. 3 — 4. 

Found in Europe, America, and Asia, but does not migrate far southwards ; breeds in Siberia, 
Kamschatka, Greenland, and Iceland, generally on the banks of fresh water rivers or lakes, laying 
from ten to twelve yellowish eggs. The female and young of this species may be distinguished 
from those of the hooded merganser by the shortness and stoutness of the bill, and by the serratures 
not being pointed backwards, and more resembling the lamellae of the true ducks. The tube of the 
trachea has one enlargement towards the middle, and continues of large diameter to the inferior 
larynx, which differs in form from that of the other mergansers, the greatest diameter being trans- 
vise instead of vertical; in other respects it is similar. 



APPENDIX. 

Much additional evidence in favour of the theory we have advanced having been brought 
forward in the second volume of Dr. Pochard' s Researches into the Physical History of Man, we 
have formed the following Table, in order to shew the geographical distribution of the Anatidee, 

and consequently those species which will, perhaps, some time or other, be accounted varieties. 

M. signifies migrant ; S. If. and W. jM. summer and winter migrants ; S. stationary ; 0. V. occasional visitant. 



NAME. 



Choristopus semipalmatus 
Plectropterus Gambensis 
Coreopsis Novae HoUandise 
Cleophaga MageHanica 

Sandvicensis 

Bernicla Antarctica 

jubata 

brenta 

leucopsis 

■ ruficollis 

Cheniscus Madagascariensis 

Coromandeliana 

Anser i'erus 

ervthropus 

melanopterus 

hvperboreas 

Indica 

Canadensis 



Hutchinsii 

cygnoides 

Cygnus olor 

■ atratus 

nigricollis 

Bew i-'kii 

bnericanus 

buccinator 

immutabilis 

anatoidea 

li-rus 

Sarkidiomia regia 

, — Amcanua 

Cbenalopex /Egyptiaca 

c 

Tadorna beBonii 

radjah 

ka ratila 

i idonoides 

castanea 

I), ndroc] gna viduata 

antamxudia 

arcuata 

arborea 



Caucasian 
Ranqe. 



W. M. 
W. M. 
0. V. 



W. M. 
W. M. 

W." M. 



Mongolian 
Range. 



w. M. 

W.' M. 
W." M. 

O." V. 
S. 

o." V. 



s. 
sV? 

W. M. 
S. M. 

W." M. 

S. 



s.? 

s. 



s. 

s. 
s 



Esquimaux 
Ran^e. 



Ethiopian 
Range. 



S. M. 

S. M. 



S. M. 
S. M. 

S.' M. 

S.' M. 
S. M. 



S. M. 
S. M. 
S. M. 
S. M. 

S." M. 



S. 



s.? 



American 
Range. 



s. 

s. 

s.r 



w. M. 



Malay 
Range. 



w. 


M. 


w. 


M 




s. 


w 


M 


w 


M 


w 


M 




s'. 


w 


M 



s. 
s. 



s. ? 

s. 



s.r 



s. 
s. 

o.v. 

s 



APPENDIX. 






NAME. 



Caucasian 

Itangt*. 



Mongolian 

limine. 



Esquimaux 
Range. 



Ethiopian 

Uanire. 



American 
Range. 



Mala] 
Range, 



Leptotarsis Eytoni 
Datila acuta 

pyrogaster 

uropbasianus 

marmorata 

Psecilonitta Bahamensis 

erythrorhyncha 

Mareca fistularis 

Americana 

castanea 

Chiloensis 



Aia sponsa 

galericulata 

Querquedula creceoidies 

Hottentota 

erytlimrbyncba 

falcaria 

glocitans 

Javancnsis 

Manillensis 

formosa 

crccca 

C'arolincnsis 

Capensia 

( 'yanopterua circia 

fretensis 

' discors 



Rafll 



esii 



Rhynchaspis clypeata 

rbyncbotia 

maculata 

Capensia 

Malacorhynchus membrinacea 
Chaulelasmus strepera 
Anas boschas 

obscura 

superciliosa 

specularis 

poecilorbyncba 

spaxsa 

flavirostris 

Carina moschata 
Micropterus patachonicus 

bracbyptera 

Melanitta fusca 

Americana 

nigra 

perspicillata 

Somateria mollissima 

spectabilia 

Polysticta Stelleri 
Kamptorhyncbus Labrador 1 is 
Calliclien rufina 

caryophylacca 

Fuligula ferina 

falisneria 

— erythrocephala 



man] 

cristata 
rufitorques 



affinis 

Nyroca brunnea 

leucopthalmUB 



\\ 



O 



w 







w 



w 



w 



w 
w 



M. 



M. 



M. 



M. 



M. 



W. M 


O.V. 


W. M 


O.V. 


s. 


s. 


O.V. 



M. 



M. 



W.M.? 



s. 
s. 



s. 
s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 



W. M. 



s. ? 

s. 



s 

s. 

s. 



S. M. 



S. M. 



s. M. 



S. M. 
s. M. 
s. if. 
S. M. 
S.? 

S 8 



S. M. 

s. M.? 
S. M.? 

s. M. 
S. M. 

S. M. ? 
S. M. ? 



<) 



O 



s.« 

s. 
S. 

s. 



W. .M. 




' S. ' 

S. M. 


' s. ' 
s.V 


' S. " 


.... 


' S. 





s. 
s. 



s.? 



s. M. 
S. 




s. 
s 

s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 


' s, ' 
s. 


' s. ' 

s. 


" s. " 

O.V 


s. 


' s. ' 

O.V 


' s. ' 

s. 
s. 


— 


s. 




s. 

s.? 

S ! 


— 



APPENDIX. 



NAME. 



Nyroca Australis 
Harelda glacialis 
Clangula vulgaris 

Americana 

Barrovii 

albeola 

histrionica 

Thalassornis leuconotus 
Biziura lobata 
Erismatura Maccoa 

Dominica 

Australis 

rubida 

leucocephala 

ferru^inea 



Mergus albellus 

cucullatus 

serrator 

Brazilianus 

merganser 



Caucasian 
Ranse. 



w. 
w. 

o. 

6 



M. 
M. 

V. 

V. 



o.v. 



W. 

o 



M. 
.V. 
S. 



Mongolian 
Kan-e. 



W. M. 



W 



Esquimaux 
Ranize. 



S. M. 

S. M. 

S. M. 

S. M. 

S. M. 

S. M. 



M. 



S. M. 
S. M. 
S. M. 

s ' M 



Ethiopian 
Range. 



American 
Range. 





W. M. 


' s. ' 


W." M. 

W. M. 
W. M. 
W. M. 

■ • • • 


' s. ' 


' S. ' 




* "s." 




' s. 




w." m 

W. M 

S. 
W. M 



Malay 

Range. 



APPENDIX, No. 2. 

In the following appendix we have given the admeasurements of the intestinal canal and 
number of vertebrae in all the species throughout the family AnatkUc, where we have been able to 
obtain them : the former, as a specific character, is subject to very great variation, an increase in 
age invariably producing a more lengthened measurement. The numbering of vertebra; in bird/ 
generally is very difficult : the mode in which Ave have proceeded, though differing from other 
authors, has at all events the advantage of simplification. We consider all those vertebrae anterior 
to the ribs, and not having any attachment to them, cervical; the dorsal are those anterior to the 
pelvinal bones, having ribs attached to them ; the sacral are those anchylosed together, and imme- 
diately succeeding the dorsal, — to some of these ribs are attached, either true or false ; the 
numbering of those, where this is the case, we have shewn by the smaller and last number in the 
column headed No. of sacral vertebrae ; so that, in order to ascertain the true number, the smaller 
one must be added to the greater. The caudal vertebrae arc those posterior to and not anchylosed 
to the sacral. — In the numbering of the false ribs we have shewn their position by two figures, 
the first referring to those anterior to the true ones, the latter to those placed posteriorly to them. 

N. B. The admeasurements are given in inches. 



NAME. 



Plectropterus Gambensis, F. 
Bemicla Brenta 
A i) sit segetum, F. 

cygnoides 

Cygnus Bewickii, M. 

atratus, F. 

olor 

ferus, F. 

Tadorna bellonii, M. 
Dafila caudacuta, M. 
Mareca fistularis, M. 
Aia sponsa 

Querquedula erythrorhyncha, M. 

■ F. 

crecca, M. 

-F. 

Cyanopterus circia 
Rnynchaspis clypeata, M. 

— ■ F. 

Chaulelasmus strepera 
Anas boschas, M. 

F. 

Carina mosehata, M. 
Melanitta nigra, F. 
Fulignla Gesneri, M. 

marilla, M. 

cristata, M. 

F. 

Nvroca leucopthalmus, M. 

— ; F. 

Harelda glacialis 
Clangula vulgaris, M. 

— __F. 

histrionica 

Mergua serrator, F. 

merganser, M. 

F. 



-j ~ s 



albellus, F. 



76 
85 

143 

11 1 

127 
123 

71 

59 

40 

3U 

30" 

48 

50 

89 
83 

84 

79 
78 
62 
49 
an 
77 
80 
13 
37| 

54 
49 

55 
79 
66| 
53 



o a a 
5 2 



10 
7 

91 

4| 
4l 
3| 

3 

a 

24 

s 

3j 

4 
3| 



31 



5 

35 
5 

4 

4| 
2 

2i 

1 

1 

6~ 
3| 



13 



111 
11 



11 

8* 

8J 

9 

3i 
21 

21 
5 

5h 
5k 

9 

64 
6| 
I 

6 
6 
4| 
4| 

4 
3i 

23 

3 



If 



18 

18 
18 

23 

23 

16 
16 
II 



14 



11 

14 
14 

13 
12 
15 
13 
15 

16 

11 
11 

14 

1 I 
1 1 

14 



6 
6 

7 



7 
6 

6 
8 
7 

7 
7 



13 
I 1 
15 



16 4 



15 
13 
14 
12 



13 3 



11 3 

13 3 

14 3 

12 3 
16 3 

13 3 

16 3 
11 3 

15 3 

11 3 
15 3 

17 3 
15 3 

13 3 

14 3 



7 
6 

7 
7 
7 



- S 



47 
47 
49 

57 

55 

15 

42 



43 



43 

II 
41 

42 
46 
16 
16 
(6 

47 

15 
45 

16 
16 

11 

45 



8 
6 
6 
6 



7 
7 

G 

7 
7 

7 



2 1 

1 I 

1 

2 1 

2 1 
2 1 
2 1 
2 1 



2 1 



2 I 

2 1 

2 I 

2 1 

2 1 

2 1 

2 1 

2 1 

2 1 



2 1 

2 1 

3 1 



SUPPLEMENT. 



ADDITIONAL CHARACTERS OF AIA. 

E.rt. Char. — Lingua subobtusa, ad apicem appendiculata, ad latera una ordine setarum, et supra has setas quatuoribus 
spinis instructa. 

Anat. Char. — (Esophagus magnus, in media parte multum expandens ; proventriculo magno. 

Ext. Cliar. — Tongue subobtuse, with an appendage at the tip, on the sides armed with one row of bristles, above which 
are four short spines. 

Anat. Cltar. — (Esophagus large, much expanded in the middle ; the proventriculus large. 



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168